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Title: Simultaneous Energy Savings and IEQ Improvements in Relocatable Classrooms

Abstract

Relocatable classrooms (RCs) are commonly used by school districts with changing demographics and enrollment sizes. We designed and constructed four energy-efficient RCs for this study to demonstrate technologies with the potential to simultaneously improve energy efficiency and indoor environmental quality (IEQ). Two were installed at each of two school districts, and energy use and IEQ parameters were monitored during occupancy. Two RCs (one per school) were finished with materials selected for reduced emissions of toxic and odorous volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Each had two HVAC systems, operated on alternate weeks, consisting of a standard heat-pump system and an indirect-direct evaporative cooling (IDEC) system with gas-fired hydronic heating. The IDEC system provides continuous outside air ventilation at {sup 3}15 CFM (7.5 L s-1) person-1, efficient particle filtration while using significantly less energy for cooling. School year long measurements included: carbon dioxide (CO2), particles, VOCs, temperature, humidity, thermal comfort, noise, meteorology, and energy use. IEQ monitoring results indicate that important ventilation-relevant indoor CO2 and health-relevant VOC concentration reductions were achieved while average cooling and heating energy costs were simultaneously reduced by 50 percent and 30 percent, respectively.

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE. Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy; California Energy Commission Contract 400-99-012 (US)
OSTI Identifier:
840982
Report Number(s):
LBNL-52690
R&D Project: 80FJ62; TRN: US200513%%197
DOE Contract Number:  
AC03-76SF00098
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Resource Relation:
Other Information: PBD: 22 May 2003
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
32 ENERGY CONSERVATION, CONSUMPTION, AND UTILIZATION; 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; CARBON DIOXIDE; EDUCATIONAL FACILITIES; ENERGY ACCOUNTING; ENERGY EFFICIENCY; ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY; EVAPORATIVE COOLING; FILTRATION; HEATING; HVAC SYSTEMS; METEOROLOGY; MONITORING; ORGANIC COMPOUNDS; THERMAL COMFORT; VENTILATION; VOLATILE MATTER; ENERGY INDOOR POLLUTANTSHVAC VENTILATION THERMAL COMFORT SCHOOLS

Citation Formats

Apte, Michael G, Dibartolomeo, Dennis, Hotchi, Toshi, Hodgson, Alfred T, Lee, Seung-Min, Liff, Shawna M, Rainer, Leo I, Shendell, Derek G, Sullivan, Doug P, and Fisk, William J. Simultaneous Energy Savings and IEQ Improvements in Relocatable Classrooms. United States: N. p., 2003. Web. doi:10.2172/840982.
Apte, Michael G, Dibartolomeo, Dennis, Hotchi, Toshi, Hodgson, Alfred T, Lee, Seung-Min, Liff, Shawna M, Rainer, Leo I, Shendell, Derek G, Sullivan, Doug P, & Fisk, William J. Simultaneous Energy Savings and IEQ Improvements in Relocatable Classrooms. United States. doi:10.2172/840982.
Apte, Michael G, Dibartolomeo, Dennis, Hotchi, Toshi, Hodgson, Alfred T, Lee, Seung-Min, Liff, Shawna M, Rainer, Leo I, Shendell, Derek G, Sullivan, Doug P, and Fisk, William J. Thu . "Simultaneous Energy Savings and IEQ Improvements in Relocatable Classrooms". United States. doi:10.2172/840982. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/840982.
@article{osti_840982,
title = {Simultaneous Energy Savings and IEQ Improvements in Relocatable Classrooms},
author = {Apte, Michael G and Dibartolomeo, Dennis and Hotchi, Toshi and Hodgson, Alfred T and Lee, Seung-Min and Liff, Shawna M and Rainer, Leo I and Shendell, Derek G and Sullivan, Doug P and Fisk, William J},
abstractNote = {Relocatable classrooms (RCs) are commonly used by school districts with changing demographics and enrollment sizes. We designed and constructed four energy-efficient RCs for this study to demonstrate technologies with the potential to simultaneously improve energy efficiency and indoor environmental quality (IEQ). Two were installed at each of two school districts, and energy use and IEQ parameters were monitored during occupancy. Two RCs (one per school) were finished with materials selected for reduced emissions of toxic and odorous volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Each had two HVAC systems, operated on alternate weeks, consisting of a standard heat-pump system and an indirect-direct evaporative cooling (IDEC) system with gas-fired hydronic heating. The IDEC system provides continuous outside air ventilation at {sup 3}15 CFM (7.5 L s-1) person-1, efficient particle filtration while using significantly less energy for cooling. School year long measurements included: carbon dioxide (CO2), particles, VOCs, temperature, humidity, thermal comfort, noise, meteorology, and energy use. IEQ monitoring results indicate that important ventilation-relevant indoor CO2 and health-relevant VOC concentration reductions were achieved while average cooling and heating energy costs were simultaneously reduced by 50 percent and 30 percent, respectively.},
doi = {10.2172/840982},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2003},
month = {5}
}