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Title: The Hydrothermal Chemistry of Gold, Arsenic, Antimony, Mercury and Silver

Abstract

A comprehensive thermodynamic database based on the Helgeson-Kirkham-Flowers (HKF) equation of state was developed for metal complexes in hydrothermal systems. Because this equation of state has been shown to accurately predict standard partial molal thermodynamic properties of aqueous species at elevated temperatures and pressures, this study provides the necessary foundation for future exploration into transport and depositional processes in polymetallic ore deposits. The HKF equation of state parameters for gold, arsenic, antimony, mercury, and silver sulfide and hydroxide complexes were derived from experimental equilibrium constants using nonlinear regression calculations. In order to ensure that the resulting parameters were internally consistent, those experiments utilizing incompatible thermodynamic data were re-speciated prior to regression. Because new experimental studies were used to revise the HKF parameters for H2S0 and HS-1, those metal complexes for which HKF parameters had been previously derived were also updated. It was found that predicted thermodynamic properties of metal complexes are consistent with linear correlations between standard partial molal thermodynamic properties. This result allowed assessment of several complexes for which experimental data necessary to perform regression calculations was limited. Oxygen fugacity-temperature diagrams were calculated to illustrate how thermodynamic data improves our understanding of depositional processes. Predicted thermodynamic properties were usedmore » to investigate metal transport in Carlin-type gold deposits. Assuming a linear relationship between temperature and pressure, metals are predicted to predominantly be transported as sulfide complexes at a total aqueous sulfur concentration of 0.05 m. Also, the presence of arsenic and antimony mineral phases in the deposits are shown to restrict mineralization within a limited range of chemical conditions. Finally, at a lesser aqueous sulfur concentration of 0.01 m, host rock sulfidation can explain the origin of arsenic and antimony minerals within the paragenetic sequence.« less

Authors:
;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Director. Office of Science. Office of Basic Energy Sciences (US)
OSTI Identifier:
840338
Report Number(s):
LBNL-57395
R&D Project: 468111; TRN: US200510%%89
DOE Contract Number:  
AC03-76SF00098
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Resource Relation:
Other Information: PBD: 23 Mar 2003
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
15 GEOTHERMAL ENERGY; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 58 GEOSCIENCES; ANTIMONY; ARSENIC; CHEMISTRY; GOLD; HYDROTHERMAL SYSTEMS; HYDROXIDES; MERCURY; MINERALIZATION; POLYMETALLIC ORES; SILVER; SILVER SULFIDES; SULFIDATION; SULFIDES; SULFUR; THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES; THERMODYNAMICS; Geothermal Legacy

Citation Formats

Bessinger, Brad, and Apps, John A. The Hydrothermal Chemistry of Gold, Arsenic, Antimony, Mercury and Silver. United States: N. p., 2003. Web. doi:10.2172/840338.
Bessinger, Brad, & Apps, John A. The Hydrothermal Chemistry of Gold, Arsenic, Antimony, Mercury and Silver. United States. doi:10.2172/840338.
Bessinger, Brad, and Apps, John A. Sun . "The Hydrothermal Chemistry of Gold, Arsenic, Antimony, Mercury and Silver". United States. doi:10.2172/840338. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/840338.
@article{osti_840338,
title = {The Hydrothermal Chemistry of Gold, Arsenic, Antimony, Mercury and Silver},
author = {Bessinger, Brad and Apps, John A},
abstractNote = {A comprehensive thermodynamic database based on the Helgeson-Kirkham-Flowers (HKF) equation of state was developed for metal complexes in hydrothermal systems. Because this equation of state has been shown to accurately predict standard partial molal thermodynamic properties of aqueous species at elevated temperatures and pressures, this study provides the necessary foundation for future exploration into transport and depositional processes in polymetallic ore deposits. The HKF equation of state parameters for gold, arsenic, antimony, mercury, and silver sulfide and hydroxide complexes were derived from experimental equilibrium constants using nonlinear regression calculations. In order to ensure that the resulting parameters were internally consistent, those experiments utilizing incompatible thermodynamic data were re-speciated prior to regression. Because new experimental studies were used to revise the HKF parameters for H2S0 and HS-1, those metal complexes for which HKF parameters had been previously derived were also updated. It was found that predicted thermodynamic properties of metal complexes are consistent with linear correlations between standard partial molal thermodynamic properties. This result allowed assessment of several complexes for which experimental data necessary to perform regression calculations was limited. Oxygen fugacity-temperature diagrams were calculated to illustrate how thermodynamic data improves our understanding of depositional processes. Predicted thermodynamic properties were used to investigate metal transport in Carlin-type gold deposits. Assuming a linear relationship between temperature and pressure, metals are predicted to predominantly be transported as sulfide complexes at a total aqueous sulfur concentration of 0.05 m. Also, the presence of arsenic and antimony mineral phases in the deposits are shown to restrict mineralization within a limited range of chemical conditions. Finally, at a lesser aqueous sulfur concentration of 0.01 m, host rock sulfidation can explain the origin of arsenic and antimony minerals within the paragenetic sequence.},
doi = {10.2172/840338},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2003},
month = {3}
}