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Title: Fuel-Cycle and Nuclear Material Disposition Issues Associated with High-Temperature Gas Reactors

Abstract

The objective of this paper is to facilitate a better understanding of the fuel-cycle and nuclear material disposition issues associated with high-temperature gas reactors (HTGRs). This paper reviews the nuclear fuel cycles supporting early and present day gas reactors, and identifies challenges for the advanced fuel cycles and waste management systems supporting the next generation of HTGRs, including the Very High Temperature Reactor, which is under development in the Generation IV Program. The earliest gas-cooled reactors were the carbon dioxide (CO2)-cooled reactors. Historical experience is available from over 1,000 reactor-years of operation from 52 electricity-generating, CO2-cooled reactor plants that were placed in operation worldwide. Following the CO2 reactor development, seven HTGR plants were built and operated. The HTGR came about from the combination of helium coolant and graphite moderator. Helium was used instead of air or CO2 as the coolant. The helium gas has a significant technical base due to the experience gained in the United States from the 40-MWe Peach Bottom and 330-MWe Fort St. Vrain reactors designed by General Atomics. Germany also built and operated the 15-MWe Arbeitsgemeinschaft Versuchsreaktor (AVR) and the 300-MWe Thorium High-Temperature Reactor (THTR) power plants. The AVR, THTR, Peach Bottom and Fort St. Vrainmore » all used fuel containing thorium in various forms (i.e., carbides, oxides, thorium particles) and mixtures with highly enriched uranium. The operational experience gained from these early gas reactors can be applied to the next generation of nuclear power systems. HTGR systems are being developed in South Africa, China, Japan, the United States, and Russia. Elements of the HTGR system evaluated included fuel demands on uranium ore mining and milling, conversion, enrichment services, and fuel fabrication; fuel management in-core; spent fuel characteristics affecting fuel recycling and refabrication, fuel handling, interim storage, packaging, transportation, waste forms, waste treatment, decontamination and decommissioning issues; and low-level waste (LLW) and high-level waste (HLW) disposal.« less

Authors:
;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (US)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Environmental Management (EM) (US)
OSTI Identifier:
839371
DOE Contract Number:  
AC07-99ID13727
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: Americas Nuclear Energy Symposium (ANES 2004), Miami, FL (US), 10/03/2004--10/06/2004; Other Information: PBD: 3 Oct 2004
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
21 SPECIFIC NUCLEAR REACTORS AND ASSOCIATED PLANTS; 11 NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLE AND FUEL MATERIALS; 29 ENERGY PLANNING, POLICY AND ECONOMY; 12 MANAGEMENT OF RADIOACTIVE WASTES, AND NON-RADIOACTIVE WASTES FROM NUCLEAR FACILITIES; AVR REACTOR; CARBON DIOXIDE; FUEL CYCLE; FUEL MANAGEMENT; HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM; NUCLEAR ENERGY; NUCLEAR FUELS; NUCLEAR POWER; POWER PLANTS; SPENT FUELS; URANIUM ORES; VRAIN REACTOR; WASTE FORMS; WASTE MANAGEMENT; WASTE PROCESSING; WASTE STORAGE; HIGH-LEVEL WASTE DISPOSAL; LOW-LEVEL WASTE DISPOSAL; NUCLEAR MATERIAL DISPOSITION; HIGH-TEMPERATURE GAS REACTORS

Citation Formats

Shropshire, D.E., and Herring, J.S. Fuel-Cycle and Nuclear Material Disposition Issues Associated with High-Temperature Gas Reactors. United States: N. p., 2004. Web.
Shropshire, D.E., & Herring, J.S. Fuel-Cycle and Nuclear Material Disposition Issues Associated with High-Temperature Gas Reactors. United States.
Shropshire, D.E., and Herring, J.S. Sun . "Fuel-Cycle and Nuclear Material Disposition Issues Associated with High-Temperature Gas Reactors". United States. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/839371.
@article{osti_839371,
title = {Fuel-Cycle and Nuclear Material Disposition Issues Associated with High-Temperature Gas Reactors},
author = {Shropshire, D.E. and Herring, J.S.},
abstractNote = {The objective of this paper is to facilitate a better understanding of the fuel-cycle and nuclear material disposition issues associated with high-temperature gas reactors (HTGRs). This paper reviews the nuclear fuel cycles supporting early and present day gas reactors, and identifies challenges for the advanced fuel cycles and waste management systems supporting the next generation of HTGRs, including the Very High Temperature Reactor, which is under development in the Generation IV Program. The earliest gas-cooled reactors were the carbon dioxide (CO2)-cooled reactors. Historical experience is available from over 1,000 reactor-years of operation from 52 electricity-generating, CO2-cooled reactor plants that were placed in operation worldwide. Following the CO2 reactor development, seven HTGR plants were built and operated. The HTGR came about from the combination of helium coolant and graphite moderator. Helium was used instead of air or CO2 as the coolant. The helium gas has a significant technical base due to the experience gained in the United States from the 40-MWe Peach Bottom and 330-MWe Fort St. Vrain reactors designed by General Atomics. Germany also built and operated the 15-MWe Arbeitsgemeinschaft Versuchsreaktor (AVR) and the 300-MWe Thorium High-Temperature Reactor (THTR) power plants. The AVR, THTR, Peach Bottom and Fort St. Vrain all used fuel containing thorium in various forms (i.e., carbides, oxides, thorium particles) and mixtures with highly enriched uranium. The operational experience gained from these early gas reactors can be applied to the next generation of nuclear power systems. HTGR systems are being developed in South Africa, China, Japan, the United States, and Russia. Elements of the HTGR system evaluated included fuel demands on uranium ore mining and milling, conversion, enrichment services, and fuel fabrication; fuel management in-core; spent fuel characteristics affecting fuel recycling and refabrication, fuel handling, interim storage, packaging, transportation, waste forms, waste treatment, decontamination and decommissioning issues; and low-level waste (LLW) and high-level waste (HLW) disposal.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2004},
month = {10}
}

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