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Title: AFCI UFP, Final Technical Report DE-FC07-00AL67053

Abstract

The project ''Creating an Educational Consortium to Support the Recruitment and Retention of Expertise for the Nuclear Weapons Complex'' was also known as the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) University Fellowship Program. Since its inception, the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative program and its predecessor, the Advanced Accelerator Applications (AAA) program, have engaged university researchers and students in the sciences necessary to answer technical questions related to reducing high-level waste volumes, optimizing the economics and performance of Yucca Mountain, reducing the technical need for a second repository, reducing the long-term inventories of plutonium in spent fuel, and enabling the proliferation-resistant recovery of the energy contained in spent fuel. The Advanced Fuel Cycle University Fellowship Program is intended to support top students across the nation in a variety of disciplines that will be required to support transmutation research and technology development in the coming decades.

Authors:
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas; University Research Alliance, Amarillo, Texas (US)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) (US)
OSTI Identifier:
836988
Report Number(s):
Final Scientific -Technical Report
DE-FG0700AL67053; TRN: US0501478
DOE Contract Number:
FC07-00AL67053
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Resource Relation:
Other Information: PBD: 21 Feb 2005
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
11 NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLE AND FUEL MATERIALS; 12 MANAGEMENT OF RADIOACTIVE WASTES, AND NON-RADIOACTIVE WASTES FROM NUCLEAR FACILITIES; 21 SPECIFIC NUCLEAR REACTORS AND ASSOCIATED PLANTS; 43 PARTICLE ACCELERATORS; 45 MILITARY TECHNOLOGY, WEAPONRY, AND NATIONAL DEFENSE; ACCELERATORS; ECONOMICS; FUEL CYCLE; INVENTORIES; NUCLEAR WEAPONS; PERFORMANCE; PLUTONIUM; RETENTION; SPENT FUELS; TRANSMUTATION; WASTES; YUCCA MOUNTAIN; AFCI; ADVANCED FUEL CYCLE INITIATIVE; AFCI UFP; ADVANCED FUEL CYCLE INITIATIVE UNIVERSITY FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM; AAA; ADVANCED ACCELERATOR APPLICATIONS PROGRAM; CREATING AN EDUCATIONAL CONSORTIUM TO SUPPORT THE RECRUITMENT AND RETENTION OF EXPERTISE FOR THE NUCLEAR WEAPONS COMPLEX

Citation Formats

Cathy Dixon. AFCI UFP, Final Technical Report DE-FC07-00AL67053. United States: N. p., 2005. Web. doi:10.2172/836988.
Cathy Dixon. AFCI UFP, Final Technical Report DE-FC07-00AL67053. United States. doi:10.2172/836988.
Cathy Dixon. 2005. "AFCI UFP, Final Technical Report DE-FC07-00AL67053". United States. doi:10.2172/836988. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/836988.
@article{osti_836988,
title = {AFCI UFP, Final Technical Report DE-FC07-00AL67053},
author = {Cathy Dixon},
abstractNote = {The project ''Creating an Educational Consortium to Support the Recruitment and Retention of Expertise for the Nuclear Weapons Complex'' was also known as the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) University Fellowship Program. Since its inception, the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative program and its predecessor, the Advanced Accelerator Applications (AAA) program, have engaged university researchers and students in the sciences necessary to answer technical questions related to reducing high-level waste volumes, optimizing the economics and performance of Yucca Mountain, reducing the technical need for a second repository, reducing the long-term inventories of plutonium in spent fuel, and enabling the proliferation-resistant recovery of the energy contained in spent fuel. The Advanced Fuel Cycle University Fellowship Program is intended to support top students across the nation in a variety of disciplines that will be required to support transmutation research and technology development in the coming decades.},
doi = {10.2172/836988},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 2005,
month = 2
}

Technical Report:

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  • Nine strains were identified to grow with gasoline as sole sulfur source. Two different genes were cloned from Gordonia terrae KGB1 and tested for the ability to support gasoline BDS. The first of these, fmoA, was cloned by screening a KGB1 gene library for the ability to convert indole to indigo (a sulfur-regulated capability in KGB1). The fmoA gene was overexpressed in a gasoline tolerant strain of Pseudomonas putida PpG1 and the recombinant strain was shown to convert thiophene to a dimer of thiophene sulfoxide at rates nearly two orders of magnitude higher than KGB1 could catalyze the reaction. Despitemore » this high activity the recombinant PpG1 was unable to demonstrate any activity against gasoline either in shake flask or in bench-scale gasoline BDS bioreactor. A second gene (toeA) was cloned from KGB1 and shown to support growth of Rhodococcus erythropolis JB55 on gasoline. The toeA gene was also identified in another gasoline strain T. wratislaviensis EMT4, and was identified as a homolog of dszA from R. erythropolis IGTS8. Expression of this gene in JB55 supported conversion of DBTO2 (the natural substrate for DszA) to HPBS, but activity against gasoline was low and BDS results were inconsistent. It appeared that activity was directed against C2- and C3-thiophenes. Efforts to increase gene expression by plasmid manipulation, by addition of flavin reductase genes, or by expression in PpG1 were unsuccessful. The DszC protein (DBT monooxygenase) from IGTS8 has very little activity against the sulfur compounds in gasoline, but a mutant enzyme with a substitution of phenylalanine for valine at position 261 was shown to have an altered substrate range. This alteration resulted in increased activity against gasoline, with activity towards mainly C3- and C4-thiophenes and benzothiophene. A mutant library of dszB was constructed by RACHITT (W. C. Coco et al., DNA shuffling method for generating highly recombined genes and evolved enzymes. 2001. Nature Biotech. 19:354-359) method of in vitro recombination. Methods for analysis were developed and a preliminary analysis of the library was performed. A preliminary gasoline process design was constructed and process economics were determined based upon assumptions made from experimental results. The projected cost of gasoline BDS was determined to be competitive with current competing technologies.« less
  • Department of Energy award number DE-FC07-99CH11010, Enhanced Utilization of Corn Based Biomaterials, supported a technology development program sponsored by Cargill Dow LLC from September 30, 1999 through June 30, 2003. The work involved fundamental scientific studies on poly lactic acid (PLA), a new environmentally benign plastic material from renewable resources. DOE funds supported academic research at the Colorado School of Mines and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and industry cost share was directed towards applied research into new product development utilizing the fundamental information generated by the academic partners. Under the arrangement of the grant, the fundamental information ismore » published so that other companies can utilize it in evaluating the applicability of PLA in their own products. The overall project objective is to increase the utilization of PLA, a renewable resource based plastic, currently produced from fermented corn sugar.« less
  • In order to reduce the current excesses of plutonium (both weapon grade and reactor grade) and other transuranium elements, a concept of inert matrix fuel (IMF) has been proposed for an uranium free transmutation of fissile actinides which excludes continuous uranium-plutonium conversion in thermal reactors and advanced systems. Magnesium oxide (MgO) is a promising candidate for inert matrix (IM) materials due to its high melting point (2827 C), high thermal conductivity (13 W/K {center_dot} m at 1000 C), good neutronic properties, and irradiation stability However, MgO reacts with water and hydrates easily, which prevents it from being used in lightmore » water reactors (LWRs) as an IM. To improve the hydration resistance of MgO-based inert matrix materials, Medvedev and coworkers have recently investigated the introduction of a secondary phase that acts as a hydration barrier. An MgO-ZrO{sub 2} composite was specifically studied and the results showed that the composite exhibited improved hydration resistance than pure MgO. However, ZrO{sub 2} is insoluble in most acids except HF, which is undesirable for fuel reprocessing. Moreover, the thermal conductivity of ZrO{sub 2} is low and typically less than 3 W {center_dot} m{sup -1} {center_dot} K{sup -1} at 1000 C. In search for an alternative composite strategy, Nd{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7}, an oxide compound with pyrochlore structure, has been proposed recently as a corrosion resistant phase, and MgO-Nd{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} composites have been investigated as potential IM materials. An adequate thermal conductivity of 6 W {center_dot} m{sup -} 1 {center_dot} K{sup -1} at 1000 C for the MgO-Nd{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} composite with 90 vol% MgO was recently calculated and reported. Other simulations proposed that the MgO-pyrochlore composites could exhibit higher radiation stability than previously reported. Final optimization of the composite microstructure was performed on the 70 vol% MgO-Nd{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} composite that burnup calculations had shown to have the closest profile to that of MOX fuel. Theoretical calculations also indicated that a homogeneous 70 vol% MgO composite could achieve the desired microstructure that would result in satisfying the dual requirements of good thermal properties.« less
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  • The results described in this report summarize the evaluations of potential benefits to a geologic repository for a variety of AFCI options that were studied during FY04. Many of the options were examined in response to a request by Burton Richter, chair of the Advanced Nuclear Transformation Technology (ANTT) Subcommittee of NERAC, to perform an initial evaluation of the potential benefit to a geologic repository from processing commercial spent nuclear fuel to separate certain chemical elements and to recycle some of these elements in thermal spectrum reactors such as light water reactors. The measure of repository benefit has been definedmore » as the allowable increase in repository drift loading consistent with satisfying all repository thermal design limits, since loading of a geologic repository at Yucca Mountain is currently limited by temperature constraints. Such an increase in drift loading can be used to either reduce the size of a repository of given capacity, or to increase the capacity of a repository of a given size. Any changes in estimated peak dose caused by the resulting alteration in the radionuclide inventory of the repository have not been evaluated, but are the subject of a separate ongoing study.« less