skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Studies of Alkali Sorption Kinetics for Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion by High Pressure Mass Spectrometry

Abstract

This work describes the first approach to use High Pressure Mass Spectrometry (HPMS) for the quantification and analysis of alkali species in a gas stream downstream a sorbent bed of different tested alumosilicates.

Authors:
; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Research Center Juelich, IWV-2, 52425 Juelich (DE)
Sponsoring Org.:
none (US)
OSTI Identifier:
836714
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: 5th International Symposium on Gas Cleaning at High Temperatures, Morgantown, WV (US), 09/17/2002--09/20/2002; Other Information: PBD: 20 Sep 2002
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT; 20 FOSSIL-FUELED POWER PLANTS; CLEANING; FLUIDIZED-BED COMBUSTION; HYDROXIDES; KINETICS; MASS SPECTROSCOPY; SORPTION; ALKALI SORPTION; PFBC; HIGH PRESSURE MASS SPECTROMETRY (HPMS)

Citation Formats

Wolf, K.J., Willenborg, W., Fricke, C., Prikhodovsky, A., Hilpert, K., and Singheiser, L.. Studies of Alkali Sorption Kinetics for Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion by High Pressure Mass Spectrometry. United States: N. p., 2002. Web.
Wolf, K.J., Willenborg, W., Fricke, C., Prikhodovsky, A., Hilpert, K., & Singheiser, L.. Studies of Alkali Sorption Kinetics for Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion by High Pressure Mass Spectrometry. United States.
Wolf, K.J., Willenborg, W., Fricke, C., Prikhodovsky, A., Hilpert, K., and Singheiser, L.. Fri . "Studies of Alkali Sorption Kinetics for Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion by High Pressure Mass Spectrometry". United States. doi:. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/836714.
@article{osti_836714,
title = {Studies of Alkali Sorption Kinetics for Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion by High Pressure Mass Spectrometry},
author = {Wolf, K.J. and Willenborg, W. and Fricke, C. and Prikhodovsky, A. and Hilpert, K. and Singheiser, L.},
abstractNote = {This work describes the first approach to use High Pressure Mass Spectrometry (HPMS) for the quantification and analysis of alkali species in a gas stream downstream a sorbent bed of different tested alumosilicates.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Fri Sep 20 00:00:00 EDT 2002},
month = {Fri Sep 20 00:00:00 EDT 2002}
}

Conference:
Other availability
Please see Document Availability for additional information on obtaining the full-text document. Library patrons may search WorldCat to identify libraries that hold this conference proceeding.

Save / Share:
  • The primary focus of this research was the removal of alkali from PFBC flue gases to a level specified by turbine manufactures. The target level was less than 24 ppbw. Several of the aluminosilicate minerals have the potential to capture alkalis, especially sodium and potassium, under conditions typical of fluid-bed operation. Other goals of this work were to investigate the potential for simultaneously removing SO{sub 2} and Cl from the PFBC gas stream. The initial work focused primarily on one class of sorbents, sodalites, with the goal of determining whether sodalites can be used as an in-bed sorbent to simultaneouslymore » remove alkali and sulfur. Thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) was used to study the mechanism of alkali capture using sodalite. Further testing was performed on a 7.6 cm (3-in.)-diameter pressurized fluid-bed reactor (PFBR). Early results indicated that simultaneous removal of alkali and sulfur and/or chlorine was not practical under the conditions for commercial PFBC operations. Therefore, the focus of the latter part of this work was on sorbents that have been shown to capture alkali in other systems. The effectiveness of bauxite and kaolinite to reduce vapor-phase alkali concentrations was determined. In addition to studying the gettering capability of the sorbent, the impact of the getter on operational performance was evaluated. This evaluation included examining potential agglomeration of bed particles, deposition on heat-transfer surfaces, and the bridging and blinding of ceramic candle filters. The focus of this paper is on the work performed on the PFBR.« less
  • A fixed granular-bed sorber is being developed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) for the control of the alkali vapor in a PFBC process stream. To achieve the objectives of this project, a high-temperature, high-pressure alkali sorber has been designed, fabricated, and installed onto the ANL laboratory-scale 15.2-cm-dia (6-in.-dia) pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) facility (PFBC/alkali sorber facility). The real-time alkali concentrations (sodium and potassium) in the process stream are measured by an Ames on-line alkali analyzer for both the sorber-inlet and sorbed-outlet gas streams. In addition to the Ames alkali analyzer, a batch-type alkali and particulate sampling train (APST) is installedmore » as a back-up for the analysis of both alkali vapor and particulate in the sorber-inlet gas stream. The APST is designed on the basis of a cold-trap condensation method. Three experimental activities have been proceeding during this year: (1) laboratory calibration of the Ames alkali analyzer and the batch-type APST, (2) laboratory study on alkali-vapor capture by stainless steel, and (3) modification of the PFBC/alkali sorber to reduce particulate loading in the PFBC process stream. Results of each activity are presented in this report.« less
  • Alkali vapors (Na and K) in the hot flue gas from the pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) of coal could cause corrosion problems with the gas turbine blades. In a laboratory-scale PFBC test with Beulah lignite, a fixed granular bed of activated bauxite sorbent was used to demonstrate its capability for measuring and controlling alkali vapors in the PFBC flue gas. The Beulah lignite was combusted in a bed of Tymochtee dolomite at bed temperatures ranging from 850 to 875{degrees}C and a system pressure of 9.2 atm absolute. The time-averaged concentration of sodium vapor in the PFBC flue gas was determinedmore » from the analysis of two identical beds of activated bauxite and found to be 1.42 and 1.50 ppmW. The potassium vapor concentration was determined to be 0.10 ppmW. The sodium material balance showed that only 0.24% of the total sodium in the lignite was released as vapor species in the PFBC flue gas. This results in an average of 1.56 ppmW alkali vapors in the PFBC flue gas. This average is more than 1.5 orders of magnitude greater than the currently suggested alkali specification limit of 0.024 ppm for an industrial gas turbine. The adsorption data obtained with the activated bauxite beds were also analyzed mathematically by use of a LUB (length of unused bed)/equilibrium section concept. Analytical results showed that the length of the bed, L{sub o} in centimeters, relates to the break through time, {theta}{sub b} in hours, for the alkali vapor to break through the bed as follows: L{sub o} = 33.02 + 1.99 {theta}{sub b}. This formula provides useful information for the engineering design of fixed-bed activated bauxite sorbers for the measurement and control of alkali vapors in PFBC flue gas. 26 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.« less
  • Two Illinois Herrin No. 6 coals and one Illinois Springfield No. 5 coal were separately combusted in a laboratory-scale (15-cm dia) pressurized fluidized-bed combustor (PFBC) combined with an alkali sorber. These coals were combusted in a fluidized bed of Tymochtee dolomite at temperatures ranging from 910 to 950[degree]C and a system pressure of 9.2 atm absolute. Alkali-vapor emission (Na and K) in the PFBC flue gas was determined by the analytical activated-bauxite sorber bed technique developed at Argonne National Laboratory. The test results showed that sodium is the major alkali-vapor species present in the PFBC flue gas, and that themore » level of sodium-vapor emission increases linearly with both Na and Cl contents in the coals. This suggests that the sodium-vapor emission results from direct vaporization of NaCl present in the coals. The measured alkali-vapor concentration (Na + K), 67 to 190 ppbW, is more than 2.5 times greater than the allowable alkali limit of 24 ppb for an industrial gas turbine. Combusting these coals in a PFBC for power generation may require developing a method to control alkali vapors.« less