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Title: Negative Electrodes for Li-Ion Batteries

Abstract

Graphitized carbons have played a key role in the successful commercialization of Li-ion batteries. The physicochemical properties of carbon cover a wide range; therefore identifying the optimum active electrode material can be time consuming. The significant physical properties of negative electrodes for Li-ion batteries are summarized, and the relationship of these properties to their electrochemical performance in nonaqueous electrolytes, are discussed in this paper.

Authors:
;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE. Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. Office of Transportation Technologies. Office of Advanced Automotive Technologies; HydroQuebec (US)
OSTI Identifier:
836653
Report Number(s):
LBNL-49004
R&D Project: 673001; TRN: US200504%%245
DOE Contract Number:
AC03-76SF00098
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Journal of Power Sources; Journal Volume: 110; Journal Issue: 2; Other Information: Submitted to Journal of Power Sources: Volume 110, No.2; Journal Publication Date: 08/22/2002; PBD: 1 Oct 2001
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
25 ENERGY STORAGE; CARBON; COMMERCIALIZATION; ELECTRODES; ELECTROLYTES; PERFORMANCE; PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

Citation Formats

Kinoshita, Kim, and Zaghib, Karim. Negative Electrodes for Li-Ion Batteries. United States: N. p., 2001. Web.
Kinoshita, Kim, & Zaghib, Karim. Negative Electrodes for Li-Ion Batteries. United States.
Kinoshita, Kim, and Zaghib, Karim. 2001. "Negative Electrodes for Li-Ion Batteries". United States. doi:. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/836653.
@article{osti_836653,
title = {Negative Electrodes for Li-Ion Batteries},
author = {Kinoshita, Kim and Zaghib, Karim},
abstractNote = {Graphitized carbons have played a key role in the successful commercialization of Li-ion batteries. The physicochemical properties of carbon cover a wide range; therefore identifying the optimum active electrode material can be time consuming. The significant physical properties of negative electrodes for Li-ion batteries are summarized, and the relationship of these properties to their electrochemical performance in nonaqueous electrolytes, are discussed in this paper.},
doi = {},
journal = {Journal of Power Sources},
number = 2,
volume = 110,
place = {United States},
year = 2001,
month =
}
  • FeSn2, Cu6Sn5, CoSn3, and Ni3Sn4 single-crystalline nanospheres with a characteristic uniform particle size of 40 nm have been synthesized via a modified polyol process, aiming at determining and understanding their intrinsic cycling performance as negative electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries. We find that, in this morphologically controlled condition, the reversible capacities follow FeSn2 > Cu6Sn5 ? CoSn3 > Ni3Sn4, which is not directly decided by their theoretical capacities or lithium-driven volume changes. FeSn2 exhibits the best electrochemical activity among these intermetallic nanospheres and an effective solid electrolyte interface, which explains its superior cycling performance. The small particle dimension also improvesmore » cycling stability and Li+ diffusion.« less
  • FeSn{sub 2}, Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5}, CoSn{sub 3}, and Ni{sub 3}Sn{sub 4} single-crystalline nanospheres with a characteristic uniform particle size of 40 nm have been synthesized via a modified polyol process, aiming at determining and understanding their intrinsic cycling performance as negative electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries. We find that, in this morphologically controlled condition, the reversible capacities follow FeSn{sub 2} > Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} {approx} CoSn{sub 3} > Ni{sub 3}Sn{sub 4}, which is not directly decided by their theoretical capacities or lithium-driven volume changes. FeSn{sub 2} exhibits the best electrochemical activity among these intermetallic nanospheres and an effective solid electrolytemore » interface, which explains its superior cycling performance. The small particle dimension also improves cycling stability and Li{sup +} diffusion.« less
  • The electrochemical reactions between Li and Na with amorphous/nanocrystalline AlSb thin films prepared by magnetron sputtering are reported for the first time. The films are composed of AlSb and Sb nanoparticles embedded into an amorphous matrix with an overall Sb/Al ratio of 1.13. The reaction with Li proceeds with an average reaction potential of 0.65 V, a reversible capacity of 750 mAh g-1, and very fast reaction kinetics. For instance, a storage capacity close to 500 mAh g-1, corresponding to 70% of the maximum capacity, is achieved at 125 C-rate. In addition, there is only a small increase in overpotentialsmore » with increasing current: ~0.15 V at 12 C and ~0.7 V at 125 C. In contrast, the reaction with Na results in average reaction potential of 0.5 V and a storage capacity of 500 mAh g-1 obtained at low currents. The capacity retention and reaction kinetics are presently not satisfactory with pronounced capacity losses upon cycling and large overpotentials with increasing current. The capacity retention can be improved by using fluoroethylene carbonate additive in the Na-ion electrolyte, which highlights that the Solid Electrolyte Interphase plays an important role for the electrode cycling stability. The reaction kinetics is relatively poor and an increase in overpotentials of about 0.9 V at 2 C is observed (retained capacity of about 350 mAh g-1 or 66% of the maximum). The study of the reaction mechanism on thick films (3-5 m) by X-ray diffraction reveals that the electrode material remains amorphous at all potentials. The presence of broad humps, located at the positions expected for Li-Al and Li-Sb line compounds, suggests that during the reaction with Li the atomic short range ordering is similar to the expected phases.« less
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