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Title: Electroactive Materials for Anion Separation - Technetium from Nitrate

Abstract

Many contaminants of interest to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) exist as anions. These include the high priority pollutants chromate, pertechnetate, and nitrate ions. In addition, there are also industrial and urban applications where the separation of anionic species from aqueous streams is critical. Examples include industrial water recycle and waste water treatment (e.g., chloride ion removal for the pulp and paper industry, borate ion in the chemical and nuclear industries) and drinking water and agricultural waste treatment (e.g., nitrate removal). In the proposed research, technetium is chosen as the target pollutant. Because of its half-life of 213,000 years, technetium (99Tc) presents a long-term hazard for waste disposal. Much of the 99Tc in the tank wastes is present as pertechnetate (TcO4-), accounting for its high solubility and mobility in aqueous systems. Several sorbents are available for removing TcO4- from alkaline waste brines, but each has important drawbacks. The use of commercial ion exchange (IX) resins to extract TcO4-, e.g., Reillex{trademark}-HPQ (Reilly Industries) and ABEC 5000 (Eichrom Industries), generates significant secondary waste. The elution of TcO4- from Reillex{trademark}-HPQ resins requires either concentrated nitric acid or a concentrated caustic solution of ethylene-diamine containing a small amount of tin chloride. This eluantmore » has a short shelf life requiring frequent preparation, and the 99Tc is delivered in a complexed, reduced form. While TcO4- can be eluted from ABEC 5000 resins using de-ionized water, the much-reduced capacity of ABEC 5000 resins in comparison to the Reillex{trademark}-HPQ resins leads to a low column capacity. In general, unwanted secondary wastes are generated because (1) the only effective eluant happens to be hazardous and/or (2) the IX material has a low capacity or selectivity for the target ion, resulting in more frequent elution and column replacements. Alternative IX materials that have high capacities, can be regenerated easily, and are highly selective for TcO4- would avoid these problems. Electrochemically active IX media meet these criteria. Such an IX system uses electrically induced changes in the media to expel sorbed ions through a charge imbalance rather than requiring chemical eluants to ''strip'' them. Therefore, this medium eliminates the need to prepare, store, and dispose of many of the process chemicals normally required for IX operations. The focus of the project is to develop a fundamental understanding of how the physical and chemical properties of electroactive ion exchange (EaIX) materials control their efficiency when used as mass separation agents. Specifically, the desirable characteristics of EaIX materials for separation applications are (1) high reversibility, (2) high selectivity, (3) acceptable physical and chemical stability, (4) rapid intercalation and de-intercalation rates, and (5) high capacity. Because of these requirements, EaIX materials share many properties in common with conventional ion exchangers and electroactive polymers. For example, EaIX materials require the selectivity typically found in ion exchangers; they also require the redox reversibility of electroactive polymers. The results of this work will allow the rational design of new materials and processes tailored for the separation of specific anions.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA; University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota; Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (US)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Environmental Management (EM) (US)
OSTI Identifier:
833276
Report Number(s):
EMSP-65409-2000
R&D Project: EMSP 65409; TRN: US200430%%1237
DOE Contract Number:  
FG07-98ER14927
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Resource Relation:
Other Information: PBD: 1 Jun 2000
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
09 BIOMASS FUELS; 32 ENERGY CONSERVATION, CONSUMPTION, AND UTILIZATION; 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; 37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; AGRICULTURAL WASTES; ANIONS; CHEMICAL PROPERTIES; CHLORIDES; DRINKING WATER; ION EXCHANGE; NITRATES; NITRIC ACID; PAPER INDUSTRY; PERTECHNETATES; POLYMERS; TECHNETIUM; TIN CHLORIDES; WASTE DISPOSAL; WASTE WATER

Citation Formats

Sukamto, Johanes H, Smyrl, William H, McBreen, James, Hubler, Timothy L, and Lilga, Michael A. Electroactive Materials for Anion Separation - Technetium from Nitrate. United States: N. p., 2000. Web. doi:10.2172/833276.
Sukamto, Johanes H, Smyrl, William H, McBreen, James, Hubler, Timothy L, & Lilga, Michael A. Electroactive Materials for Anion Separation - Technetium from Nitrate. United States. doi:10.2172/833276.
Sukamto, Johanes H, Smyrl, William H, McBreen, James, Hubler, Timothy L, and Lilga, Michael A. Thu . "Electroactive Materials for Anion Separation - Technetium from Nitrate". United States. doi:10.2172/833276. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/833276.
@article{osti_833276,
title = {Electroactive Materials for Anion Separation - Technetium from Nitrate},
author = {Sukamto, Johanes H and Smyrl, William H and McBreen, James and Hubler, Timothy L and Lilga, Michael A},
abstractNote = {Many contaminants of interest to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) exist as anions. These include the high priority pollutants chromate, pertechnetate, and nitrate ions. In addition, there are also industrial and urban applications where the separation of anionic species from aqueous streams is critical. Examples include industrial water recycle and waste water treatment (e.g., chloride ion removal for the pulp and paper industry, borate ion in the chemical and nuclear industries) and drinking water and agricultural waste treatment (e.g., nitrate removal). In the proposed research, technetium is chosen as the target pollutant. Because of its half-life of 213,000 years, technetium (99Tc) presents a long-term hazard for waste disposal. Much of the 99Tc in the tank wastes is present as pertechnetate (TcO4-), accounting for its high solubility and mobility in aqueous systems. Several sorbents are available for removing TcO4- from alkaline waste brines, but each has important drawbacks. The use of commercial ion exchange (IX) resins to extract TcO4-, e.g., Reillex{trademark}-HPQ (Reilly Industries) and ABEC 5000 (Eichrom Industries), generates significant secondary waste. The elution of TcO4- from Reillex{trademark}-HPQ resins requires either concentrated nitric acid or a concentrated caustic solution of ethylene-diamine containing a small amount of tin chloride. This eluant has a short shelf life requiring frequent preparation, and the 99Tc is delivered in a complexed, reduced form. While TcO4- can be eluted from ABEC 5000 resins using de-ionized water, the much-reduced capacity of ABEC 5000 resins in comparison to the Reillex{trademark}-HPQ resins leads to a low column capacity. In general, unwanted secondary wastes are generated because (1) the only effective eluant happens to be hazardous and/or (2) the IX material has a low capacity or selectivity for the target ion, resulting in more frequent elution and column replacements. Alternative IX materials that have high capacities, can be regenerated easily, and are highly selective for TcO4- would avoid these problems. Electrochemically active IX media meet these criteria. Such an IX system uses electrically induced changes in the media to expel sorbed ions through a charge imbalance rather than requiring chemical eluants to ''strip'' them. Therefore, this medium eliminates the need to prepare, store, and dispose of many of the process chemicals normally required for IX operations. The focus of the project is to develop a fundamental understanding of how the physical and chemical properties of electroactive ion exchange (EaIX) materials control their efficiency when used as mass separation agents. Specifically, the desirable characteristics of EaIX materials for separation applications are (1) high reversibility, (2) high selectivity, (3) acceptable physical and chemical stability, (4) rapid intercalation and de-intercalation rates, and (5) high capacity. Because of these requirements, EaIX materials share many properties in common with conventional ion exchangers and electroactive polymers. For example, EaIX materials require the selectivity typically found in ion exchangers; they also require the redox reversibility of electroactive polymers. The results of this work will allow the rational design of new materials and processes tailored for the separation of specific anions.},
doi = {10.2172/833276},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2000},
month = {6}
}

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