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Title: Cold-Crucible Design Parameters for Next Generation HLW Melters

Abstract

The cold-crucible induction melter (CCIM) design eliminates many materials and operating constraints inherent in joule-heated melter (JHM) technology, which is the standard for vitrification of high-activity wastes worldwide. The cold-crucible design is smaller, less expensive, and generates much less waste for ultimate disposal. It should also allow a much more flexible operating envelope, which will be crucial if the heterogeneous wastes at the DOE reprocessing sites are to be vitrified. A joule-heated melter operates by passing current between water-cooled electrodes through a molten pool in a refractory-lined chamber. This design is inherently limited by susceptibility of materials to corrosion and melting. In addition, redox conditions and free metal content have exacerbated materials problems or lead to electrical short-circuiting causing failures in DOE melters. In contrast, the CCIM design is based on inductive coupling of a water-cooled high-frequency electrical coil with the glass, causing eddycurrents that produce heat and mixing. A critical difference is that inductance coupling transfers energy through a nonconductive solid layer of slag coating the metal container inside the coil, whereas the jouleheated design relies on passing current through conductive molten glass in direct contact with the metal electrodes and ceramic refractories. The frozen slag in the CCIMmore » design protects the containment and eliminates the need for refractory, while the corrosive molten glass can be the limiting factor in the JH melter design. The CCIM design also eliminates the need for electrodes that typically limit operating temperature to below 1200 degrees C. While significant marketing claims have been made by French and Russian technology suppliers and developers, little data is available for engineering and economic evaluation of the technology, and no facilities are available in the US to support testing. A currently funded project at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), is providing preliminary data on the CCIM technology using a small laboratory unit at the Khlopin Radium Institute in St. Petersburg Russia with INEEL Sodium Bearing Waste surrogate. The task includes both the baseline borosilicate glass and a new iron-phosphate glass developed at the University of Missouri-Rolla, which may offer significant advantages in compatibility with greater concentrations of highly refractory oxides. This project is integrating two disparate advances to develop a system with strong potential for benefit to the Department of Energy. Collaborative development of basic physical parameter data on the CCIM using promising glass formulations is being conducted by University of Missouri - Rolla, Russian and American researchers.« less

Authors:
; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (US); Khlopin Radium Institute 2-nd Murinsky Ave., 28, St. Petersburg (RU); University of Missouri-Rolla School of Mines and Metallurgy 1870 Miner Circle, Rolla, MO (US)
Sponsoring Org.:
US Department of Energy (US)
OSTI Identifier:
833221
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: Waste Management 2002 Symposium, Tucson, AZ (US), 02/24/2002--02/28/2002; Other Information: PBD: 26 Feb 2002
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
11 NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLE AND FUEL MATERIALS; 12 MANAGEMENT OF RADIOACTIVE WASTES, AND NON-RADIOACTIVE WASTES FROM NUCLEAR FACILITIES; BOROSILICATE GLASS; CERAMICS; COATINGS; CONTAINERS; DESIGN; ELECTRODES; INDUCTION; OXIDES; RADIUM; REPROCESSING; SLAGS; SODIUM; VITRIFICATION; WASTE MANAGEMENT; WASTES

Citation Formats

Gombert, D., Richardson, J., Aloy, A., and Day, D. Cold-Crucible Design Parameters for Next Generation HLW Melters. United States: N. p., 2002. Web.
Gombert, D., Richardson, J., Aloy, A., & Day, D. Cold-Crucible Design Parameters for Next Generation HLW Melters. United States.
Gombert, D., Richardson, J., Aloy, A., and Day, D. Tue . "Cold-Crucible Design Parameters for Next Generation HLW Melters". United States. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/833221.
@article{osti_833221,
title = {Cold-Crucible Design Parameters for Next Generation HLW Melters},
author = {Gombert, D. and Richardson, J. and Aloy, A. and Day, D.},
abstractNote = {The cold-crucible induction melter (CCIM) design eliminates many materials and operating constraints inherent in joule-heated melter (JHM) technology, which is the standard for vitrification of high-activity wastes worldwide. The cold-crucible design is smaller, less expensive, and generates much less waste for ultimate disposal. It should also allow a much more flexible operating envelope, which will be crucial if the heterogeneous wastes at the DOE reprocessing sites are to be vitrified. A joule-heated melter operates by passing current between water-cooled electrodes through a molten pool in a refractory-lined chamber. This design is inherently limited by susceptibility of materials to corrosion and melting. In addition, redox conditions and free metal content have exacerbated materials problems or lead to electrical short-circuiting causing failures in DOE melters. In contrast, the CCIM design is based on inductive coupling of a water-cooled high-frequency electrical coil with the glass, causing eddycurrents that produce heat and mixing. A critical difference is that inductance coupling transfers energy through a nonconductive solid layer of slag coating the metal container inside the coil, whereas the jouleheated design relies on passing current through conductive molten glass in direct contact with the metal electrodes and ceramic refractories. The frozen slag in the CCIM design protects the containment and eliminates the need for refractory, while the corrosive molten glass can be the limiting factor in the JH melter design. The CCIM design also eliminates the need for electrodes that typically limit operating temperature to below 1200 degrees C. While significant marketing claims have been made by French and Russian technology suppliers and developers, little data is available for engineering and economic evaluation of the technology, and no facilities are available in the US to support testing. A currently funded project at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), is providing preliminary data on the CCIM technology using a small laboratory unit at the Khlopin Radium Institute in St. Petersburg Russia with INEEL Sodium Bearing Waste surrogate. The task includes both the baseline borosilicate glass and a new iron-phosphate glass developed at the University of Missouri-Rolla, which may offer significant advantages in compatibility with greater concentrations of highly refractory oxides. This project is integrating two disparate advances to develop a system with strong potential for benefit to the Department of Energy. Collaborative development of basic physical parameter data on the CCIM using promising glass formulations is being conducted by University of Missouri - Rolla, Russian and American researchers.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Tue Feb 26 00:00:00 EST 2002},
month = {Tue Feb 26 00:00:00 EST 2002}
}

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