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Title: The Adaptive Response in p53 Cancer Prone Mice: Loss of heterozygosity and Genomic Instability

Abstract

The Trp53 gene is clearly associated with increased cancer risk. This, coupled with the broad understanding of its mode of action at the molecular level, makes this gene a good candidate for investigating the relationship between genetic risk factors and spontaneous cancer occurring in a mouse model exposed to low dose radiation. We have shown that adaptive response to chronic low dose radiation could increase cancer latency, as well as overall lifespan. To better understand the molecular processes that influence cellular risk, modern tools in molecular biology were used to evaluate the loss of heterozigozity (LOH) at the Trp53 locus, and chromosomal instability in the cells from mice exposed to chronic low dose radiation. Female mice carrying a single defective copy of the Trp53 gene were irradiated with doses of gamma-radiation delivered at a low dose rate of about 0.7 mGy/hr. Groups of mice (5 irradiated and 5 unexposed) were exposed to 0.33 mGy per day for 15, 30, 45, 60, 67 and 75 weeks equaling total body doses of 2.4, 4.7, 7.2, 9.7, 10.9 and 12.1 cGy, respectively. The presence of a single defective copy of the Trp53 gene increases cancer risk in these mice. However, in vivo exposuremore » to low dose radiation increased cancer latency. We hypothesized that: (1) These mice might have spontaneous chromosome instability, and (2) that this low dose adaptive exposure would reduce the chromosomal instability. This instability was investigated using spectral karyotyping (SKY). Bone marrow cells from 5 irradiated mice (doses of 10.9 and 12.1 cGy) and 5 control mice were collected for metaphase harvest. Briefly, the cells were incubated at 37 C for 4 hours in RPMI containing 25% heat-inactivated FBS and 0.1 mg/ml colcemid, and then given a hypotonic treatment of 0.075M KCl for 20 minutes at 37 C. An average of 100 metaphases per mouse were karyotyped. The Trp53 heterozygous mice do not show apparent structural chromosome instability. From both unexposed and irradiated mice, only numerical aberrations were observed in 5 to 20% of the cells. There seem to be an age related increase in numerical aberrations as mice grow old. The results indicate that the presence of a defective copy of the Trp53 gene does not seem to affect spontaneous chromosomal instability or in response to chronic low dose exposure to g-radiation. In previous studies it was speculated that low dose and low dose rate in vivo exposure to g-radiation induces an adaptive response, which reduces the risk of cancer death generated by subsequent DNA damage from either spontaneous or radiation induced events due to enhanced recombinational repair. Induced recombination could result from reversion to homozygosity at Trp53 gene locus (Trp53 +/- to +/+) or loss of heterozygosity in unexposed mice (Trp53 +/- to -/-). This hypothesis was investigated using the quantitative real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (QRT-PCR) quantification method and the novel Rolling Circle Amplification technique (RCA). For these purposes, spleenocytes and bone marrow cells from all the mice were isolated for cell fixation and DNA extraction. The defective Trp53 allele is generated by integration of a portion of the cloning vector pKONEO DNA into the coding sequence. Therefore, the genotypic changes are monitored based on the detection of the NEO allele and the normal Trp53 allele in the cells. To evaluate loss of heterozygosity at the Trp53 gene locus in a cell, detection of the NEO allele and the normal Trp53 allele using the dual color RCA was utilized. In our hands, this protocol did not give the required sensitivity. The gene signal enumeration was inconsistent and not reproducible. The protocol was modified and could not be optimized. Therefore, the QRT-PCR method was selected to evaluate the loss of heterozygosity with greater sensitivity and efficiency. A set of 4 primers was designed to target the NEO allele and the normal Trp53 allele in a PCR experiment using the LightCycler instrument (Roche Diagnostics). Detection of the specific PCR amplicon using the SYBR Green fluorescent dye provided real-time analysis of amplified target sequences. More than 800 real-time PCR reactions were conducted on DNA extracted from tissues of the irradiated and unexposed mice from the 30, 45, 60, 67 and 75 week groups. The crossing point (Cp) value calculated from the amplification curve correlates to the original number of copies of the Trp53 gene in the DNA sample. The Cp values were evaluated using the quantification software. A statistical analysis of the data is in progress to confirm any changes in the original number of DNA copies. This research will provide important information regarding the health effects and cancer risk of low doses of low LET radiation and should support the development of a biologically based model for risk assessment and subsequent radiation protection policy.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [1]
  1. McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada). Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences
  2. Credit Valley Hospital, Missassauga, ON (Canada)
  3. Atomic Energy of Canada (AECL), Limited, Chalk River, ON (Canada)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science and Technology (OST) (EM-50)
OSTI Identifier:
832808
DOE Contract Number:  
FG02-02ER63450
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
59 BASIC BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES; 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; 60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; 61 RADIATION PROTECTION AND DOSIMETRY; 63 RADIATION, THERMAL, AND OTHER ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANT EFFECTS ON LIVING ORGANISMS AND BIOLOGICAL MATERIALS; BONE MARROW CELLS; CHROMOSOMES; DNA DAMAGES; DOSE RATES; GAMMA RADIATION; IN VIVO; INSTABILITY; MICE; MITOSIS; MOLECULAR BIOLOGY; NEOPLASMS; POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION; RADIATION PROTECTION; RECOMBINATION; RISK ASSESSMENT; Chronic low doses exposure to gamma radiation; Genetic susceptibility; Trp53 heterozygous cancer prone mice; Cancer risk assessment; Adaptive response; Chromosomal instability investigation using Spectral karyotyping; Loss of heterozygosity analysis using Rolling Circle Amplification and Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction.

Citation Formats

Josee, Lavoie, Dolling, Jo-Anna, Mitchel, Ron E.J., and Boreham, Douglas R. The Adaptive Response in p53 Cancer Prone Mice: Loss of heterozygosity and Genomic Instability. United States: N. p., 2004. Web. doi:10.2172/832808.
Josee, Lavoie, Dolling, Jo-Anna, Mitchel, Ron E.J., & Boreham, Douglas R. The Adaptive Response in p53 Cancer Prone Mice: Loss of heterozygosity and Genomic Instability. United States. doi:10.2172/832808.
Josee, Lavoie, Dolling, Jo-Anna, Mitchel, Ron E.J., and Boreham, Douglas R. Tue . "The Adaptive Response in p53 Cancer Prone Mice: Loss of heterozygosity and Genomic Instability". United States. doi:10.2172/832808. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/832808.
@article{osti_832808,
title = {The Adaptive Response in p53 Cancer Prone Mice: Loss of heterozygosity and Genomic Instability},
author = {Josee, Lavoie and Dolling, Jo-Anna and Mitchel, Ron E.J. and Boreham, Douglas R.},
abstractNote = {The Trp53 gene is clearly associated with increased cancer risk. This, coupled with the broad understanding of its mode of action at the molecular level, makes this gene a good candidate for investigating the relationship between genetic risk factors and spontaneous cancer occurring in a mouse model exposed to low dose radiation. We have shown that adaptive response to chronic low dose radiation could increase cancer latency, as well as overall lifespan. To better understand the molecular processes that influence cellular risk, modern tools in molecular biology were used to evaluate the loss of heterozigozity (LOH) at the Trp53 locus, and chromosomal instability in the cells from mice exposed to chronic low dose radiation. Female mice carrying a single defective copy of the Trp53 gene were irradiated with doses of gamma-radiation delivered at a low dose rate of about 0.7 mGy/hr. Groups of mice (5 irradiated and 5 unexposed) were exposed to 0.33 mGy per day for 15, 30, 45, 60, 67 and 75 weeks equaling total body doses of 2.4, 4.7, 7.2, 9.7, 10.9 and 12.1 cGy, respectively. The presence of a single defective copy of the Trp53 gene increases cancer risk in these mice. However, in vivo exposure to low dose radiation increased cancer latency. We hypothesized that: (1) These mice might have spontaneous chromosome instability, and (2) that this low dose adaptive exposure would reduce the chromosomal instability. This instability was investigated using spectral karyotyping (SKY). Bone marrow cells from 5 irradiated mice (doses of 10.9 and 12.1 cGy) and 5 control mice were collected for metaphase harvest. Briefly, the cells were incubated at 37 C for 4 hours in RPMI containing 25% heat-inactivated FBS and 0.1 mg/ml colcemid, and then given a hypotonic treatment of 0.075M KCl for 20 minutes at 37 C. An average of 100 metaphases per mouse were karyotyped. The Trp53 heterozygous mice do not show apparent structural chromosome instability. From both unexposed and irradiated mice, only numerical aberrations were observed in 5 to 20% of the cells. There seem to be an age related increase in numerical aberrations as mice grow old. The results indicate that the presence of a defective copy of the Trp53 gene does not seem to affect spontaneous chromosomal instability or in response to chronic low dose exposure to g-radiation. In previous studies it was speculated that low dose and low dose rate in vivo exposure to g-radiation induces an adaptive response, which reduces the risk of cancer death generated by subsequent DNA damage from either spontaneous or radiation induced events due to enhanced recombinational repair. Induced recombination could result from reversion to homozygosity at Trp53 gene locus (Trp53 +/- to +/+) or loss of heterozygosity in unexposed mice (Trp53 +/- to -/-). This hypothesis was investigated using the quantitative real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (QRT-PCR) quantification method and the novel Rolling Circle Amplification technique (RCA). For these purposes, spleenocytes and bone marrow cells from all the mice were isolated for cell fixation and DNA extraction. The defective Trp53 allele is generated by integration of a portion of the cloning vector pKONEO DNA into the coding sequence. Therefore, the genotypic changes are monitored based on the detection of the NEO allele and the normal Trp53 allele in the cells. To evaluate loss of heterozygosity at the Trp53 gene locus in a cell, detection of the NEO allele and the normal Trp53 allele using the dual color RCA was utilized. In our hands, this protocol did not give the required sensitivity. The gene signal enumeration was inconsistent and not reproducible. The protocol was modified and could not be optimized. Therefore, the QRT-PCR method was selected to evaluate the loss of heterozygosity with greater sensitivity and efficiency. A set of 4 primers was designed to target the NEO allele and the normal Trp53 allele in a PCR experiment using the LightCycler instrument (Roche Diagnostics). Detection of the specific PCR amplicon using the SYBR Green fluorescent dye provided real-time analysis of amplified target sequences. More than 800 real-time PCR reactions were conducted on DNA extracted from tissues of the irradiated and unexposed mice from the 30, 45, 60, 67 and 75 week groups. The crossing point (Cp) value calculated from the amplification curve correlates to the original number of copies of the Trp53 gene in the DNA sample. The Cp values were evaluated using the quantification software. A statistical analysis of the data is in progress to confirm any changes in the original number of DNA copies. This research will provide important information regarding the health effects and cancer risk of low doses of low LET radiation and should support the development of a biologically based model for risk assessment and subsequent radiation protection policy.},
doi = {10.2172/832808},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2004},
month = {9}
}