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Title: Results of Hazardous and Mixed Waste Excavation from the Chemical Waste Landfill

Abstract

This paper describes the results of the excavation of a 1.9-acre hazardous and mixed waste landfill operated for 23 years at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico. Excavation of the landfill was completed in 2 1/2 years without a single serious accident or injury. Approximately 50,000 cubic yards of soil contaminated with volatile and semi-volatile organics, metals, polychlorinated biphenyl compounds, and radioactive constituents was removed. In addition, over 400 cubic yards of buried debris was removed, including bulk debris, unknown chemicals, compressed gas cylinders, thermal and chemical batteries, explosive and ordnance debris, pyrophoric materials and biohazardous waste. Removal of these wastes included negotiation of multiple regulations and guidances encompassed in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), and risk assessment methodology. RCRA concepts that were addressed include the area of contamination, permit modification, emergency treatment provision, and listed waste designation. These regulatory decisions enabled the project to overcome logistical and programmatic needs such as increased operational area, the ability to implement process improvements while maintaining a record of decisions and approvals.

Authors:
; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); URS Corporation One Park Square, 6501 Americas Parkway NE, Suite 900, Albuquerque, NM; Gram, Inc. 8500 Menaul Blvd. NE, Suite B-335, Albuquerque, NM (US)
Sponsoring Org.:
US Department of Energy (US)
OSTI Identifier:
831056
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: Waste Management 2002 Symposium, Tucson, AZ (US), 02/24/2002--02/28/2002; Other Information: PBD: 27 Feb 2002
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
12 MANAGEMENT OF RADIOACTIVE WASTES, AND NON-RADIOACTIVE WASTES FROM NUCLEAR FACILITIES; 29 ENERGY PLANNING, POLICY AND ECONOMY; 32 ENERGY CONSERVATION, CONSUMPTION, AND UTILIZATION; CHEMICAL WASTES; CONTAMINATION; EXCAVATION; GAS CYLINDERS; MILITARY EQUIPMENT; NEW MEXICO; POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS; RESOURCE CONSERVATION; RISK ASSESSMENT; SANDIA NATIONAL LABORATORIES; SANITARY LANDFILLS; TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACTS; WASTE MANAGEMENT; WASTES

Citation Formats

Young, S. G., Schofield, D. P., Kwiecinski, D., Edgmon, C. L., and Methvin, R. Results of Hazardous and Mixed Waste Excavation from the Chemical Waste Landfill. United States: N. p., 2002. Web.
Young, S. G., Schofield, D. P., Kwiecinski, D., Edgmon, C. L., & Methvin, R. Results of Hazardous and Mixed Waste Excavation from the Chemical Waste Landfill. United States.
Young, S. G., Schofield, D. P., Kwiecinski, D., Edgmon, C. L., and Methvin, R. Wed . "Results of Hazardous and Mixed Waste Excavation from the Chemical Waste Landfill". United States. doi:. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/831056.
@article{osti_831056,
title = {Results of Hazardous and Mixed Waste Excavation from the Chemical Waste Landfill},
author = {Young, S. G. and Schofield, D. P. and Kwiecinski, D. and Edgmon, C. L. and Methvin, R.},
abstractNote = {This paper describes the results of the excavation of a 1.9-acre hazardous and mixed waste landfill operated for 23 years at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico. Excavation of the landfill was completed in 2 1/2 years without a single serious accident or injury. Approximately 50,000 cubic yards of soil contaminated with volatile and semi-volatile organics, metals, polychlorinated biphenyl compounds, and radioactive constituents was removed. In addition, over 400 cubic yards of buried debris was removed, including bulk debris, unknown chemicals, compressed gas cylinders, thermal and chemical batteries, explosive and ordnance debris, pyrophoric materials and biohazardous waste. Removal of these wastes included negotiation of multiple regulations and guidances encompassed in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), and risk assessment methodology. RCRA concepts that were addressed include the area of contamination, permit modification, emergency treatment provision, and listed waste designation. These regulatory decisions enabled the project to overcome logistical and programmatic needs such as increased operational area, the ability to implement process improvements while maintaining a record of decisions and approvals.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Feb 27 00:00:00 EST 2002},
month = {Wed Feb 27 00:00:00 EST 2002}
}

Conference:
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  • The Chemical Waste Landfill (CWL) at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) is a 1.9-acre disposal site that was used for the disposal of chemical wastes generated by many of SNL/NM research laboratories from 1962 until 1985. These laboratories were primarily involved in the design, research and development of non-nuclear components of nuclear weapons and the waste generated by these labs included small quantities of a wide assortment of chemical products. A Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Closure Plan for the Chemical Waste Landfill was approved by the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) in 1992. Subsequent site characterization activities identifiedmore » the presence of significant amounts of chromium in the soil as far as 80 feet below ground surface (fbgs) and the delineation of a solvent plume in the vadose zone that extends to groundwater approximately 500 fbgs. Trichloroethylene (TCE) was detected in some groundwater samples at concentrations slightly above the drinking water limit of 5 parts per billion. In 1997 an active vapor extraction system reduced the size of the TCE vapor plume and for the last six quarterly sampling events groundwater samples have not detected TCE above the drinking water standard. A source term removal, being conducted as a Voluntary Corrective Measure (VCM), began in September 1998 and is expected to take up to two years. Four distinct disposal areas were identified from historical data and the contents of disposal pits and trenches in these areas, in addition to much of the highly contaminated soil surrounding the disposal cells, are currently being excavated. Buried waste and debris are expected to extend to a depth of 12 to 15 fbgs. Excavation will focus on the removal of buried debris and contaminated soil in a sequential, area by area manner and will proceed to whatever depth is required in order to remove all pit contents. Up to 50,000 cubic yards of soil and debris will be removed and managed during the excavation of the CWL. As part of the excavation process, soil is being separated from the buried debris using a 2-inch mechanical screen. After separation from the soil, debris items are further-segregated by matrix into the following categories: wood, scrap metal, concrete/aggregates, resins, compatible debris, intact chemical containers, radioactive and mixed waste, and high hazard items. One of the greatest sources of hazards throughout the excavation process is the removal of numerous intact chemical containers with unknown contents. A large portion of the excavated soil is contaminated with metals and/or solvents, Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are also known to be present. Most of the contaminated soils being excavated will be taken to the nearby Corrective Action Management Unit (CAMU) for treatment and management while a majority of the containers will be taken to the Hazardous Waste Management Facility or the Radioactive and Mixed Waste Management Facility for proper treatment and/or disposal at permitted offsite facilities.« less
  • This document contains case studies focusing on solvents and metals waste streams from the metal-plating and printed-circuit-board industries. Specific waste streams studied include waste solvents from resist stripping and developing operations, and plating baths and waste sludges from plating operations. The case studies include a discussion of the process operations, waste streams, mass throughputs, economics of the technology, and process residuals.
  • An ecological risk assessment was conducted to evaluate the potential for adverse environmental impacts associated with chemicals released to air as a result of a proposed expansion of a hazardous waste landfill in Ontario. The purpose of the risk assessment was to characterize ecological risks associated with the proposed expansion relative to those associated with the existing landfill and those that would exist if the current landfill was completely closed and background conditions prevailed. The ecological risk assessment was one part of a comprehensive environmental impact assessment of the proposed landfill continuation that was being performed under the requirements ofmore » Ontario`s Environmental Assessment Act. Air monitoring data from the facility were used to identify a list of 141 chemicals potentially released during landfill continuation, as well as to characterize current emissions and background chemical levels. An ecological risk-based chemical screening process that considered background concentration, source strength, environmental partitioning, bioaccumulation potential, and toxicity was used to select a group of 23 chemicals for detailed evaluation in the ecological risk assessment. Dispersion, deposition, partitioning and bioaccumulation modeling were used to predict potential exposures in ecological receptors. Receptors were selected for evaluation based on regional habitat characteristics, exposure potential, toxicant sensitivity, ecological significance, population status, and societal value. Livestock and agricultural crop and pasture species were key receptors for the assessment, given the highly agricultural nature of the study area. In addition, native wildlife species, including the endangered Henslow`s sparrow and the regionally vulnerable pugnose minnow, also were considered.« less
  • Plasma processing technology is currently being considered for the treatment of hazardous, radioactive, and mixed waste. The paper reviews the technology and proposes critical issues to be addressed in applying plasma to waste treatment. Preliminary results from a small scale plasma arcjet experiment with acetone were compared with predictions from ASPEN, a chemical equilibrium code. Preliminary results indicate that proper mixing and models describing the high temperature plasma chemical kinetics are needed to adequately predict the composition of the offgases.
  • The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Controlled Air Incineration (CAI) system, originally developed for transuranic (TRU) waste volume reduction studies, is currently being qualified for hazardous chemical and mixed waste treatment under provisions of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The objective is to obtain a permanent RCRA Part B permit for thermal disposal of hazardous and mixed wastes generated by LANL. Constructed in the mid-1970s as a demonstration project for incineration of TRU solid wastes, the CAI process was substantially modified and tested in 1980-1983 for acceptance of both liquid and solid hazardous chemicals. Successful demonstration of TRUmore » solid waste processing objectives in 1979 and later chemical waste incineration studies have been documented in several publications. In 1984, the LANL CAI became the first US Dept. of Energy (DOE) incinerator to be permitted for polychlorinated biphenyl disposal under the Toxic Substances Control Act. Following establishment of Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) jurisdiction over DOE chemical waste management in 1984, LANL sought and was granted interim status for the CAI and applied for a trial burn permit in the overall laboratory RCRA Part B application. A trial burn and final report have been completed; results have been submitted to EPA and the New Mexico Environmental Improvement Division. This paper provides an overview of trial burn planning and results together with the operational status of LANL's CAI.« less