# Cosmology Quantized in Cosmic Time

## Abstract

This paper discusses the problem of inflation in the context of Friedmann-Robertson-Walker Cosmology. We show how, after a simple change of variables, to quantize the problem in a way which parallels the classical discussion. The result is that two of the Einstein equations arise as exact equations of motion and one of the usual Einstein equations (suitably quantized) survives as a constraint equation to be imposed on the space of physical states. However, the Friedmann equation, which is also a constraint equation and which is the basis of the Wheeler-deWitt equation, acquires a welcome quantum correction that becomes significant for small scale factors. We discuss the extension of this result to a full quantum mechanical derivation of the anisotropy ({delta} {rho}/{rho}) in the cosmic microwave background radiation, and the possibility that the extra term in the Friedmann equation could have observable consequences. To clarify the general formalism and explicitly show why we choose to weaken the statement of the Wheeler-deWitt equation, we apply the general formalism to de Sitter space. After exactly solving the relevant Heisenberg equations of motion we give a detailed discussion of the subtleties associated with defining physical states and the emergence of the classical theory. Thismore »

- Authors:

- Publication Date:

- Research Org.:
- Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (US)

- Sponsoring Org.:
- USDOE Office of Science (US)

- OSTI Identifier:
- 826997

- Report Number(s):
- SLAC-PUB-10478

TRN: US200428%%1589

- DOE Contract Number:
- AC03-76SF00515

- Resource Type:
- Technical Report

- Resource Relation:
- Other Information: PBD: 3 Jun 2004

- Country of Publication:
- United States

- Language:
- English

- Subject:
- 71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; ANISOTROPY; BACKGROUND RADIATION; COSMOLOGY; EQUATIONS OF MOTION; MINKOWSKI SPACE; UNIVERSE; WAVELENGTHS

### Citation Formats

```
Weinstein, M.
```*Cosmology Quantized in Cosmic Time*. United States: N. p., 2004.
Web. doi:10.2172/826997.

```
Weinstein, M.
```*Cosmology Quantized in Cosmic Time*. United States. doi:10.2172/826997.

```
Weinstein, M. Thu .
"Cosmology Quantized in Cosmic Time". United States. doi:10.2172/826997. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/826997.
```

```
@article{osti_826997,
```

title = {Cosmology Quantized in Cosmic Time},

author = {Weinstein, M},

abstractNote = {This paper discusses the problem of inflation in the context of Friedmann-Robertson-Walker Cosmology. We show how, after a simple change of variables, to quantize the problem in a way which parallels the classical discussion. The result is that two of the Einstein equations arise as exact equations of motion and one of the usual Einstein equations (suitably quantized) survives as a constraint equation to be imposed on the space of physical states. However, the Friedmann equation, which is also a constraint equation and which is the basis of the Wheeler-deWitt equation, acquires a welcome quantum correction that becomes significant for small scale factors. We discuss the extension of this result to a full quantum mechanical derivation of the anisotropy ({delta} {rho}/{rho}) in the cosmic microwave background radiation, and the possibility that the extra term in the Friedmann equation could have observable consequences. To clarify the general formalism and explicitly show why we choose to weaken the statement of the Wheeler-deWitt equation, we apply the general formalism to de Sitter space. After exactly solving the relevant Heisenberg equations of motion we give a detailed discussion of the subtleties associated with defining physical states and the emergence of the classical theory. This computation provides the striking result that quantum corrections to this long wavelength limit of gravity eliminate the problem of the big crunch. We also show that the same corrections lead to possibly measurable effects on the CMB radiation. For the sake of completeness, we discuss the special case, {lambda} = 0, and its relation to Minkowski space. Finally, we suggest interesting ways in which these techniques can be generalized to cast light on the question of chaotic or eternal inflation. In particular, we suggest one can put an experimental lower bound on the distance to a universe with a scale factor very different from our own, by looking at its effects on our CMB radiation.},

doi = {10.2172/826997},

journal = {},

number = ,

volume = ,

place = {United States},

year = {2004},

month = {6}

}