# Fractional Charge Definitions and Conditions

## Abstract

Fractional charge is known through theoretical and experimental discoveries of isolable objects carrying fractions of familiar charge units--electric charge Q, spin S, and the difference of baryon and lepton numbers B-L. With a few simple assumptions all these effects may be described using a generalized version of charge renormalization for locally conserved charges, in which medium correlations yield familiar adiabatic, continuous renormalization, or sometimes nonadiabatic, discrete renormalization. Fractional charges may be carried by fundamental particles or fundamental solitons. Either picture works for the simplest fractional-quantum-Hall-effect quasiholes, though the particle description is far more general. The only known fundamental solitons in three or fewer space dimensions d are the kink (d = 1), the vortex (d = 2), and the magnetic monopole (d = 3). Further, for a charge not intrinsically coupled to the topological charge of a soliton, only the kink and the monopole may carry fractional values. The same reasoning enforces fractional values of B-L for electrically charged elementary particles.

- Authors:

- Publication Date:

- Research Org.:
- Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (US)

- Sponsoring Org.:
- USDOE Office of Science (US)

- OSTI Identifier:
- 826963

- Report Number(s):
- SLAC-PUB-10483

TRN: US0404720

- DOE Contract Number:
- AC03-76SF00515

- Resource Type:
- Technical Report

- Resource Relation:
- Other Information: PBD: 4 Jun 2004

- Country of Publication:
- United States

- Language:
- English

- Subject:
- 72 PHYSICS OF ELEMENTARY PARTICLES AND FIELDS; BARYONS; CHARGE RENORMALIZATION; DIMENSIONS; ELEMENTARY PARTICLES; LEPTON NUMBER; MAGNETIC MONOPOLES; MONOPOLES; RENORMALIZATION; SOLITONS; SPIN

### Citation Formats

```
Goldhaber, A.S.
```*Fractional Charge Definitions and Conditions*. United States: N. p., 2004.
Web. doi:10.2172/826963.

```
Goldhaber, A.S.
```*Fractional Charge Definitions and Conditions*. United States. doi:10.2172/826963.

```
Goldhaber, A.S. Fri .
"Fractional Charge Definitions and Conditions". United States. doi:10.2172/826963. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/826963.
```

```
@article{osti_826963,
```

title = {Fractional Charge Definitions and Conditions},

author = {Goldhaber, A.S.},

abstractNote = {Fractional charge is known through theoretical and experimental discoveries of isolable objects carrying fractions of familiar charge units--electric charge Q, spin S, and the difference of baryon and lepton numbers B-L. With a few simple assumptions all these effects may be described using a generalized version of charge renormalization for locally conserved charges, in which medium correlations yield familiar adiabatic, continuous renormalization, or sometimes nonadiabatic, discrete renormalization. Fractional charges may be carried by fundamental particles or fundamental solitons. Either picture works for the simplest fractional-quantum-Hall-effect quasiholes, though the particle description is far more general. The only known fundamental solitons in three or fewer space dimensions d are the kink (d = 1), the vortex (d = 2), and the magnetic monopole (d = 3). Further, for a charge not intrinsically coupled to the topological charge of a soliton, only the kink and the monopole may carry fractional values. The same reasoning enforces fractional values of B-L for electrically charged elementary particles.},

doi = {10.2172/826963},

journal = {},

number = ,

volume = ,

place = {United States},

year = {Fri Jun 04 00:00:00 EDT 2004},

month = {Fri Jun 04 00:00:00 EDT 2004}

}