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Title: Magnetically responsive microparticles for targeted drug and radionuclide delivery.

Abstract

We are currently investigating the use of magnetic particles--polymeric-based spheres containing dispersed magnetic nanocrystalline phases--for the precise delivery of drugs via the human vasculature. According to this review, meticulously prepared magnetic drug targeting holds promise as a safe and effective method of delivering drugs to specific organ, tissue or cellular targets. We have critically examined the wide range of approaches in the design and implementation of magnetic-particle-based drug delivery systems to date, including magnetic particle preparation, drug encapsulation, biostability, biocompatibility, toxicity, magnetic field designs, and clinical trials. However, we strongly believe that there are several limitations with past developments that need to be addressed to enable significant strides in the field. First, particle size has to be carefully chosen. Micrometer-sized magnetic particles are better attracted over a distance than nanometer sized magnetic particles by a constant magnetic field gradient, and particle sizes up to 1 {micro}m show a much better accumulation with no apparent side effects in small animal models, since the smallest blood vessels have an inner diameter of 5-7 {micro}m. Nanometer-sized particles <70 nm will accumulate in organ fenestrations despite an effective surface stabilizer. To be suitable for future human applications, our experimental approach synthesizes the magnetic drugmore » carrier according to specific predefined outcome metrics: monodisperse population in a size range of 100 nm to 1.0 {micro}m, non-toxic, with appropriate magnetic properties, and demonstrating successful in vitro and in vivo tests. Another important variable offering possible improvement is surface polarity, which is expected to prolong particle half-life in circulation and modify biodistribution and stability of drugs in the body. The molecules in the blood that are responsible for enhancing the uptake of particles by the reticuloendothelial system (RES) prefer to associate with hydrophobic surfaces. Accordingly, we will tackle this challenge by modifying the particles with hydrophilic coatings such as PEG or poloxamer (co-polymers containing hydrophobic polyoxypropylene segments and repetitive polyoxyethylene hydrophilic groups), which have a proven ability to mask recognition by the RES. Modeling is needed to help optimize the performance of targeted magnetic-particle delivery, enhance its medicinal value, and expedite its medical application. To this end, scientists at Argonne National Laboratory, working with The University of Chicago and Cleveland Clinic Hospital, are working on an effective magnetic drug targeting system based on custom magnetic field designs coupled to a three-dimensional imaging platform that addresses all associated physical and theoretical problems. Furthermore, while our clinical trial results are encouraging with regard to the tolerance and applicability of the system, more improvements must be made with respect to future study designs and systems being used. Given the technical hurdles in developing this potentially important technology, we believe we have made great progress and that we have a strong developmental plan.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Argonne National Lab., IL (US)
Sponsoring Org.:
US Department of Energy (US)
OSTI Identifier:
822552
Report Number(s):
ANL-03/28
TRN: US0401318
DOE Contract Number:  
W-31-109-ENG-38
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Resource Relation:
Other Information: PBD: 16 Feb 2004
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
62 RADIOLOGY AND NUCLEAR MEDICINE; BLOOD VESSELS; CLINICAL TRIALS; IN VITRO; IN VIVO; MAGNETIC PROPERTIES; PARTICLE SIZE; RADIOISOTOPES; RETICULOENDOTHELIAL SYSTEM; SIDE EFFECTS; MICROSPHERES; DRUGS; MATERIALS HANDLING

Citation Formats

Kaminski, M D, Ghebremeskel, A N, Nunez, L, Kasza, K E, Chang, F, Chien, T -H, Fisher, P F, Eastman, J A, Rosengart, A J, McDonald, L, Xie, Y, Johns, L, Pytel, P, and Hafeli, U O. Magnetically responsive microparticles for targeted drug and radionuclide delivery.. United States: N. p., 2004. Web. doi:10.2172/822552.
Kaminski, M D, Ghebremeskel, A N, Nunez, L, Kasza, K E, Chang, F, Chien, T -H, Fisher, P F, Eastman, J A, Rosengart, A J, McDonald, L, Xie, Y, Johns, L, Pytel, P, & Hafeli, U O. Magnetically responsive microparticles for targeted drug and radionuclide delivery.. United States. doi:10.2172/822552.
Kaminski, M D, Ghebremeskel, A N, Nunez, L, Kasza, K E, Chang, F, Chien, T -H, Fisher, P F, Eastman, J A, Rosengart, A J, McDonald, L, Xie, Y, Johns, L, Pytel, P, and Hafeli, U O. Mon . "Magnetically responsive microparticles for targeted drug and radionuclide delivery.". United States. doi:10.2172/822552. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/822552.
@article{osti_822552,
title = {Magnetically responsive microparticles for targeted drug and radionuclide delivery.},
author = {Kaminski, M D and Ghebremeskel, A N and Nunez, L and Kasza, K E and Chang, F and Chien, T -H and Fisher, P F and Eastman, J A and Rosengart, A J and McDonald, L and Xie, Y and Johns, L and Pytel, P and Hafeli, U O},
abstractNote = {We are currently investigating the use of magnetic particles--polymeric-based spheres containing dispersed magnetic nanocrystalline phases--for the precise delivery of drugs via the human vasculature. According to this review, meticulously prepared magnetic drug targeting holds promise as a safe and effective method of delivering drugs to specific organ, tissue or cellular targets. We have critically examined the wide range of approaches in the design and implementation of magnetic-particle-based drug delivery systems to date, including magnetic particle preparation, drug encapsulation, biostability, biocompatibility, toxicity, magnetic field designs, and clinical trials. However, we strongly believe that there are several limitations with past developments that need to be addressed to enable significant strides in the field. First, particle size has to be carefully chosen. Micrometer-sized magnetic particles are better attracted over a distance than nanometer sized magnetic particles by a constant magnetic field gradient, and particle sizes up to 1 {micro}m show a much better accumulation with no apparent side effects in small animal models, since the smallest blood vessels have an inner diameter of 5-7 {micro}m. Nanometer-sized particles <70 nm will accumulate in organ fenestrations despite an effective surface stabilizer. To be suitable for future human applications, our experimental approach synthesizes the magnetic drug carrier according to specific predefined outcome metrics: monodisperse population in a size range of 100 nm to 1.0 {micro}m, non-toxic, with appropriate magnetic properties, and demonstrating successful in vitro and in vivo tests. Another important variable offering possible improvement is surface polarity, which is expected to prolong particle half-life in circulation and modify biodistribution and stability of drugs in the body. The molecules in the blood that are responsible for enhancing the uptake of particles by the reticuloendothelial system (RES) prefer to associate with hydrophobic surfaces. Accordingly, we will tackle this challenge by modifying the particles with hydrophilic coatings such as PEG or poloxamer (co-polymers containing hydrophobic polyoxypropylene segments and repetitive polyoxyethylene hydrophilic groups), which have a proven ability to mask recognition by the RES. Modeling is needed to help optimize the performance of targeted magnetic-particle delivery, enhance its medicinal value, and expedite its medical application. To this end, scientists at Argonne National Laboratory, working with The University of Chicago and Cleveland Clinic Hospital, are working on an effective magnetic drug targeting system based on custom magnetic field designs coupled to a three-dimensional imaging platform that addresses all associated physical and theoretical problems. Furthermore, while our clinical trial results are encouraging with regard to the tolerance and applicability of the system, more improvements must be made with respect to future study designs and systems being used. Given the technical hurdles in developing this potentially important technology, we believe we have made great progress and that we have a strong developmental plan.},
doi = {10.2172/822552},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2004},
month = {2}
}

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