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Title: Maskless, resistless ion beam lithography

Abstract

As the dimensions of semiconductor devices are scaled down, in order to achieve higher levels of integration, optical lithography will no longer be sufficient for the needs of the semiconductor industry. Alternative next-generation lithography (NGL) approaches, such as extreme ultra-violet (EUV), X-ray, electron-beam, and ion projection lithography face some challenging issues with complicated mask technology and low throughput. Among the four major alternative NGL approaches, ion beam lithography is the only one that can provide both maskless and resistless patterning. As such, it can potentially make nano-fabrication much simpler. This thesis investigates a focused ion beam system for maskless, resistless patterning that can be made practical for high-volume production. In order to achieve maskless, resistless patterning, the ion source must be able to produce a variety of ion species. The compact FIB system being developed uses a multicusp plasma ion source, which can generate ion beams of various elements, such as O 2 +, BF 2 +, P + etc., for surface modification and doping applications. With optimized source condition, around 85% of BF 2 +, over 90% of O 2 + and P + have been achieved. The brightness of the multicusp-plasma ion source is a key issue formore » its application to maskless ion beam lithography. It can be substantially improved by optimizing the source configuration and extractor geometry. Measured brightness of 2 keV He + beam is as high as 440 A/cm 2 • Sr, which represents a 30x improvement over prior work. Direct patterning of Si thin film using a focused O 2 + ion beam has been investigated. A thin surface oxide film can be selectively formed using 3 keV O 2 + ions with the dose of 10 15 cm -2. The oxide can then serve as a hard mask for patterning of the Si film. The process flow and the experimental results for directly patterned poly-Si features are presented. The formation of shallow pn-junctions in bulk silicon wafers by scanning focused P + beam implantation at 5 keV is also presented. With implantation dose of around 10 16 cm -2, the electron concentration is about 2.5 x 10 18 cm -3 and electron mobility is around 200 cm 2/V•s. To demonstrate the suitability of scanning FIB lithography for the manufacture of integrated circuit devices, SOI MOSFET fabrication using the maskless, resistless ion beam lithography is demonstrated. An array of microcolumns can be built by stacking multi-aperture electrode and insulator layers. Because the multicusp plasma source can achieve uniform ion density over a large area, it can be used in conjunction with the array of microcolumns, for massively parallel FIB processing to achieve reasonable exposure throughput.« less

Authors:
 [1]
  1. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Office of Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation (NA-20)
OSTI Identifier:
809301
Report Number(s):
LBNL-51850
R&D Project: Z2IS04; B& R NN2001000; TRN: US0302442
DOE Contract Number:  
AC03-76SF00098
Resource Type:
Thesis/Dissertation
Resource Relation:
Other Information: TH: Thesis (Ph.D.); Submitted to University of California, Berkeley, CA (US); PBD: 10 Mar 2003
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
70 PLASMA PHYSICS AND FUSION TECHNOLOGY; ELECTRON MOBILITY; FABRICATION; GEOMETRY; INTEGRATED CIRCUITS; ION BEAMS; ION DENSITY; ION SOURCES; MOSFET; OXIDES; SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; SILICON; THIN FILMS; MASKLESS RESISTLESS ION BEAM

Citation Formats

Ji, Qing. Maskless, resistless ion beam lithography. United States: N. p., 2003. Web. doi:10.2172/809301.
Ji, Qing. Maskless, resistless ion beam lithography. United States. doi:10.2172/809301.
Ji, Qing. Wed . "Maskless, resistless ion beam lithography". United States. doi:10.2172/809301. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/809301.
@article{osti_809301,
title = {Maskless, resistless ion beam lithography},
author = {Ji, Qing},
abstractNote = {As the dimensions of semiconductor devices are scaled down, in order to achieve higher levels of integration, optical lithography will no longer be sufficient for the needs of the semiconductor industry. Alternative next-generation lithography (NGL) approaches, such as extreme ultra-violet (EUV), X-ray, electron-beam, and ion projection lithography face some challenging issues with complicated mask technology and low throughput. Among the four major alternative NGL approaches, ion beam lithography is the only one that can provide both maskless and resistless patterning. As such, it can potentially make nano-fabrication much simpler. This thesis investigates a focused ion beam system for maskless, resistless patterning that can be made practical for high-volume production. In order to achieve maskless, resistless patterning, the ion source must be able to produce a variety of ion species. The compact FIB system being developed uses a multicusp plasma ion source, which can generate ion beams of various elements, such as O2+, BF2+, P+ etc., for surface modification and doping applications. With optimized source condition, around 85% of BF2+, over 90% of O2+ and P+ have been achieved. The brightness of the multicusp-plasma ion source is a key issue for its application to maskless ion beam lithography. It can be substantially improved by optimizing the source configuration and extractor geometry. Measured brightness of 2 keV He+ beam is as high as 440 A/cm2 • Sr, which represents a 30x improvement over prior work. Direct patterning of Si thin film using a focused O2+ ion beam has been investigated. A thin surface oxide film can be selectively formed using 3 keV O2+ ions with the dose of 1015 cm-2. The oxide can then serve as a hard mask for patterning of the Si film. The process flow and the experimental results for directly patterned poly-Si features are presented. The formation of shallow pn-junctions in bulk silicon wafers by scanning focused P+ beam implantation at 5 keV is also presented. With implantation dose of around 1016 cm-2, the electron concentration is about 2.5 x 1018 cm-3 and electron mobility is around 200 cm2/V•s. To demonstrate the suitability of scanning FIB lithography for the manufacture of integrated circuit devices, SOI MOSFET fabrication using the maskless, resistless ion beam lithography is demonstrated. An array of microcolumns can be built by stacking multi-aperture electrode and insulator layers. Because the multicusp plasma source can achieve uniform ion density over a large area, it can be used in conjunction with the array of microcolumns, for massively parallel FIB processing to achieve reasonable exposure throughput.},
doi = {10.2172/809301},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2003},
month = {1}
}

Thesis/Dissertation:
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