skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: OPTIMIZATION OF THE CATHODE LONG-TERM STABILITY IN MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELLS: EXPERIMENTAL STUDY AND MATHEMATICAL MODELING

Abstract

This project focused on addressing the two main problems associated with state of art Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells, namely loss of cathode active material and stainless steel current collector deterioration due to corrosion. We followed a dual approach where in the first case we developed novel materials to replace the cathode and current collector currently used in molten carbonate fuel cells. In the second case we improved the performance of conventional cathode and current collectors through surface modification. States of art NiO cathode in MCFC undergo dissolution in the cathode melt thereby limiting the lifetime of the cell. To prevent this we deposited cobalt using an electroless deposition process. We also coated perovskite (La{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}CoO{sub 3}) in NiO thorough a sol-gel process. The electrochemical oxidation behavior of Co and perovskites coated electrodes is similar to that of the bare NiO cathode. Co and perovskite coatings on the surface decrease the dissolution of Ni into the melt and thereby stabilize the cathode. Both, cobalt and provskites coated nickel oxide, show a higher polarization compared to that of nickel oxide, which could be due to the reduced surface area. Cobalt substituted lithium nickel oxide (LiNi{sub 0.8}Co{sub 0.2}O{sub 2}) and lithium cobaltmore » oxide were also studied. LiNi{sub x}Co{sub 1-x}O{sub 2} was synthesized by solid-state reaction procedure using lithium nitrate, nickel hydroxide and cobalt oxalate precursor. LiNi{sub x}Co{sub 1-x}O{sub 2} showed smaller dissolution of nickel than state of art nickel oxide cathode. The performance was comparable to that of nickel oxide. The corrosion of the current collector in the cathode side was also studied. The corrosion characteristics of both SS304 and SS304 coated with Co-Ni alloy were studied. This study confirms that surface modification of SS304 leads to the formation of complex scales with better barrier properties and better electronic conductivity at 650 C. A three phase homogeneous model was developed to simulate the performance of the molten carbonate fuel cell cathode and the complete fuel cell. The homogeneous model is based on volume averaging of different variables in the three phases over a small volume element. This approach can be used to model porous electrodes as it represents the real system much better than the conventional agglomerate model. Using the homogeneous model the polarization characteristics of the MCFC cathode and fuel cell were studied under different operating conditions. Both the cathode and the full cell model give good fits to the experimental data.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
University of South Carolina (US)
Sponsoring Org.:
(US)
OSTI Identifier:
808855
DOE Contract Number:  
AC26-99FT40714
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Resource Relation:
Other Information: PBD: 1 Sep 2002
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
30 DIRECT ENERGY CONVERSION; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; CATHODES; COBALT OXIDES; FUEL CELLS; LITHIUM NITRATES; MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELLS; NICKEL HYDROXIDES; NICKEL OXIDES; OPTIMIZATION; SIMULATION; SOL-GEL PROCESS; STABILITY; STAINLESS STEELS; SURFACE AREA

Citation Formats

Hector Colonmer, Prabhu Ganesan, Nalini Subramanian, Dr. Bala Haran, Dr. Ralph E. White, and Dr. Branko N. Popov. OPTIMIZATION OF THE CATHODE LONG-TERM STABILITY IN MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELLS: EXPERIMENTAL STUDY AND MATHEMATICAL MODELING. United States: N. p., 2002. Web. doi:10.2172/808855.
Hector Colonmer, Prabhu Ganesan, Nalini Subramanian, Dr. Bala Haran, Dr. Ralph E. White, & Dr. Branko N. Popov. OPTIMIZATION OF THE CATHODE LONG-TERM STABILITY IN MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELLS: EXPERIMENTAL STUDY AND MATHEMATICAL MODELING. United States. doi:10.2172/808855.
Hector Colonmer, Prabhu Ganesan, Nalini Subramanian, Dr. Bala Haran, Dr. Ralph E. White, and Dr. Branko N. Popov. Sun . "OPTIMIZATION OF THE CATHODE LONG-TERM STABILITY IN MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELLS: EXPERIMENTAL STUDY AND MATHEMATICAL MODELING". United States. doi:10.2172/808855. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/808855.
@article{osti_808855,
title = {OPTIMIZATION OF THE CATHODE LONG-TERM STABILITY IN MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELLS: EXPERIMENTAL STUDY AND MATHEMATICAL MODELING},
author = {Hector Colonmer and Prabhu Ganesan and Nalini Subramanian and Dr. Bala Haran and Dr. Ralph E. White and Dr. Branko N. Popov},
abstractNote = {This project focused on addressing the two main problems associated with state of art Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells, namely loss of cathode active material and stainless steel current collector deterioration due to corrosion. We followed a dual approach where in the first case we developed novel materials to replace the cathode and current collector currently used in molten carbonate fuel cells. In the second case we improved the performance of conventional cathode and current collectors through surface modification. States of art NiO cathode in MCFC undergo dissolution in the cathode melt thereby limiting the lifetime of the cell. To prevent this we deposited cobalt using an electroless deposition process. We also coated perovskite (La{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}CoO{sub 3}) in NiO thorough a sol-gel process. The electrochemical oxidation behavior of Co and perovskites coated electrodes is similar to that of the bare NiO cathode. Co and perovskite coatings on the surface decrease the dissolution of Ni into the melt and thereby stabilize the cathode. Both, cobalt and provskites coated nickel oxide, show a higher polarization compared to that of nickel oxide, which could be due to the reduced surface area. Cobalt substituted lithium nickel oxide (LiNi{sub 0.8}Co{sub 0.2}O{sub 2}) and lithium cobalt oxide were also studied. LiNi{sub x}Co{sub 1-x}O{sub 2} was synthesized by solid-state reaction procedure using lithium nitrate, nickel hydroxide and cobalt oxalate precursor. LiNi{sub x}Co{sub 1-x}O{sub 2} showed smaller dissolution of nickel than state of art nickel oxide cathode. The performance was comparable to that of nickel oxide. The corrosion of the current collector in the cathode side was also studied. The corrosion characteristics of both SS304 and SS304 coated with Co-Ni alloy were studied. This study confirms that surface modification of SS304 leads to the formation of complex scales with better barrier properties and better electronic conductivity at 650 C. A three phase homogeneous model was developed to simulate the performance of the molten carbonate fuel cell cathode and the complete fuel cell. The homogeneous model is based on volume averaging of different variables in the three phases over a small volume element. This approach can be used to model porous electrodes as it represents the real system much better than the conventional agglomerate model. Using the homogeneous model the polarization characteristics of the MCFC cathode and fuel cell were studied under different operating conditions. Both the cathode and the full cell model give good fits to the experimental data.},
doi = {10.2172/808855},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Sun Sep 01 00:00:00 EDT 2002},
month = {Sun Sep 01 00:00:00 EDT 2002}
}

Technical Report:

Save / Share: