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Title: Integrated Biological Control

Abstract

Biological control is any activity taken to prevent, limit, clean up, or remediate potential environmental, health and safety, or workplace quality impacts from plants, animals, or microorganisms. At Hanford the principal emphasis of biological control is to prevent the transport of radioactive contamination by biological vectors (plants, animals, or microorganisms), and where necessary, control and clean up resulting contamination. Other aspects of biological control at Hanford include industrial weed control (e.g.; tumbleweeds), noxious weed control (invasive, non-native plant species), and pest control (undesirable animals such as rodents and stinging insects; and microorganisms such as molds that adversely affect the quality of the workplace environment). Biological control activities may be either preventive (apriori) or in response to existing contamination spread (aposteriori). Surveillance activities, including ground, vegetation, flying insect, and other surveys, and apriori control actions, such as herbicide spraying and placing biological barriers, are important in preventing radioactive contamination spread. If surveillance discovers that biological vectors have spread radioactive contamination, aposteriori control measures, such as fixing contamination, followed by cleanup and removal of the contamination to an approved disposal location are typical response functions. In some cases remediation following the contamination cleanup and removal is necessary. Biological control activities for industrialmore » weeds, noxious weeds and pests have similar modes of prevention and response.« less

Authors:
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
FH (US)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Environmental Management (EM) (US)
OSTI Identifier:
808266
Report Number(s):
HNF-11170, Rev.0
TRN: US0302341
DOE Contract Number:
AC06-96RL13200
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Resource Relation:
Other Information: PBD: 1 Sep 2002
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
12 MANAGEMENT OF RADIOACTIVE WASTES, AND NON-RADIOACTIVE WASTES FROM NUCLEAR FACILITIES; ANIMALS; CONTAMINATION; HERBICIDES; INSECTS; MAGNOLIOPSIDA; MICROORGANISMS; PEST CONTROL; PLANTS; REMOVAL; RESPONSE FUNCTIONS; RODENTS; SAFETY; VECTORS; WEEDS; RADIOACTIVE WASTES; RADIATION CONTROL

Citation Formats

JOHNSON, A.R.. Integrated Biological Control. United States: N. p., 2002. Web. doi:10.2172/808266.
JOHNSON, A.R.. Integrated Biological Control. United States. doi:10.2172/808266.
JOHNSON, A.R.. 2002. "Integrated Biological Control". United States. doi:10.2172/808266. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/808266.
@article{osti_808266,
title = {Integrated Biological Control},
author = {JOHNSON, A.R.},
abstractNote = {Biological control is any activity taken to prevent, limit, clean up, or remediate potential environmental, health and safety, or workplace quality impacts from plants, animals, or microorganisms. At Hanford the principal emphasis of biological control is to prevent the transport of radioactive contamination by biological vectors (plants, animals, or microorganisms), and where necessary, control and clean up resulting contamination. Other aspects of biological control at Hanford include industrial weed control (e.g.; tumbleweeds), noxious weed control (invasive, non-native plant species), and pest control (undesirable animals such as rodents and stinging insects; and microorganisms such as molds that adversely affect the quality of the workplace environment). Biological control activities may be either preventive (apriori) or in response to existing contamination spread (aposteriori). Surveillance activities, including ground, vegetation, flying insect, and other surveys, and apriori control actions, such as herbicide spraying and placing biological barriers, are important in preventing radioactive contamination spread. If surveillance discovers that biological vectors have spread radioactive contamination, aposteriori control measures, such as fixing contamination, followed by cleanup and removal of the contamination to an approved disposal location are typical response functions. In some cases remediation following the contamination cleanup and removal is necessary. Biological control activities for industrial weeds, noxious weeds and pests have similar modes of prevention and response.},
doi = {10.2172/808266},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 2002,
month = 9
}

Technical Report:

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  • Biological control is any activity taken to prevent, limit, clean up, or remediate potential environmental, health and safety, or workplace quality impacts from plants, animals, or microorganisms. At Hanford the principal emphasis of biological control is to prevent the transport of radioactive contamination by biological vectors (plants, animals, or microorganisms), and where necessary, control and clean up resulting contamination. Other aspects of biological control at Hanford include industrial weed control (e.g.; tumbleweeds), noxious weed control (invasive, non-native plant species), and pest control (undesirable animals such as rodents and stinging insects, and microorganisms such as molds that adversely affect the qualitymore » of the workplace environment). Biological control activities may be either preventive (a priori) or in response to existing contamination spread (a posteriori). Surveillance activities, including ground, vegetation, flying insect, and other surveys, and a priori control actions, such as herbicide spraying and placing biological barriers, are important in preventing radioactive contamination spread. If surveillance discovers that biological vectors have spread radioactive contamination, a posteriori control measures, such as fixing contamination, followed by cleanup and removal of the contamination to an approved disposal location are typical response functions. In some cases remediation following the contamination cleanup and removal is necessary. Biological control activities for industrial weeds, noxious weeds and pests have similar modes of prevention and response.« less
  • The project studied the feasibility of utilizing biological systems in controlling thermal pollution by absorbing heat from their surroundings during metabolic processes. Cooling and/or warming slopes were compared on ten algal, eleven bacterial, and three fungal species that were active or killed or metabollically inhibited. Results of 318 experiments failed to conclusively demonstrate that any active system was capable of metabolically using heat energy. The very slight differentials detected on certain species, though of theoretical interest, were considered too small for practical application. (GRA)
  • Tropical deforestation provides a significant contribution to anthropogenic increases in atmospheric CO2 concentration that may lead to global warming. Forestation and other forest management options to sequester CO2 in the tropical latitudes may fail unless they address local economic, social, environmental, and political needs of people in the developing world. Forest management is discussed in terms of three objectives: carbon sequestration; sustainable development; and biodiversity conservation. An integrated forest management strategy of land-use planning is proposed to achieve these objectives, and is centered around: preservation of primary forests; intensified use of non-timber resources; agroforestry, and selective use of plantation forestry.
  • In today`s volatile political, economic, religious and cultural environment Nation-States aggressively pursue robust NBCM capabilities as economic and force equalizers for asymmetric warfare advantage. Two thoughts follow. First, the odds indicate the United States will face a NBCM capable and confident adversary in a future regional conflict. Second, although never publicly nor explicitly stated, the United States has indicated it may respond with nuclear weapons when confronted with NBCM in a conventional war. However accurate, this exchange invites a compelling question: are we prepared to confidently integrate such Presidential tasks into a conventional environment. This paper seeks to provide somemore » considerations to this question. It is not about telling the Operational Commander (CINC) how to execute Presidential tasks; it is about pulling together diverse, unclassified, operational considerations as a reasonable foundation for integrating a nuclear response into conventional operations.« less
  • Contamination in low permeability soils poses a significant technical challenge to in-situ remediation efforts. Poor accessibility to the contaminants and difficulty in delivery of treatment reagents have rendered existing in-situ treatments such as bioremediation, vapor extraction, pump and treat rather ineffective when applied to low permeability soils present at many contaminated sites. The technology is an integrated in-situ treatment in which established geotechnical methods are used to install degradation zones directly in the contaminated soil and electro-osmosis is utilized to move the contaminants back and forth through those zones until the treatment is completed. The use of zero valence ironmore » for reductive dechlorination of aliphatic chlorinated hydrocarbons is currently under investigation by a number of research groups as a potential method of in-situ treatment of contaminated ground water. The reaction appears to involve the transfer of electrons to chloro-aliphatic compounds by the oxidation of zero valence iron to ferrous iron (Fe{sup +2}). Our studies have indicated that this reaction is consistent with those of corrosion, and as such, can be influenced or increased by the presence of small amounts of metals (5% by weight) such as copper, tin, silver, gold and palladium coated on the iron surface. Incomplete coverage of the iron surface with a more electropositive metal results in an open galvanic cell, which increases the oxidation of iron and facilitates and increases the concurrent reduction of trichloroethylene and other chlorinated aliphatic compounds to the corresponding alkenes and alkanes. Our results show that plating more electropositive metals onto certain iron surfaces results in approximately a factor of ten increase in the dechlorination rate of small organochlorine compounds such as TCE.« less