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Title: Low Dose Studies with Focused X-rays in Cell and Tissue Models: Mechanisms of Bystander and Genomic Instability Responses

Abstract

The management of the risks of exposure of people to ionizing radiation is important in relation to its uses in industry and medicine, also to natural and man-made radiation in the environment. The vase majority of exposures are at a very low level of radiation dose. The risks are of inducing cancer in the exposed individuals and a smaller risk of inducing genetic damage that can be transmitted to children conceived after exposure. Studies of these risks in exposed population studies with any accuracy above the normal levels of cancer and genetic defects unless the dose levels are high. In practice, this means that our knowledge depends very largely on the information gained from the follow-up of the survivors of the atomic bombs dropped on Japanese cities. The risks calculated from these high-dose short-duration exposures then have to be projected down to the low-dose long-term exposures that apply generally. Recent research using cells in culture has revealed that the relations hi between high- and low-dose biological damage may be much more complex than had previously been thought. The aims of this and other projects in the DOE's Low-Dose Program are to gain an understanding of the biological actions of low-dosemore » radiation, ultimately to provide information that will lead to more accurate quantification of low-dose risk. Our project is based on the concept that the processes by which radiation induces cancer start where the individual tracks of radiation impact on cells and tissues. At the dose levels of most low-dose exposures, these events are rare and any individual cells only ''sees'' radiation tracks at intervals averaging from weeks to years apart. This contracts with the atomic bomb exposures where, on average, each cell was hit by hundreds of tracks instantaneously. We have therefore developed microbeam techniques that enable us to target cells in culture with any number of tracks, from one upwards. This approach enables us to study the biological basis of the relationship between high- and low-dose exposures. The targeting approach also allows us to study very clearly a newly recognized effect of radiation, the ''bystander effect'', which appears to dominate some low-dose responses and therefore may have a significant role in low-dose risk mechanisms. Our project also addresses the concept that the background of naturally occurring oxidative damage that takes place continually in cells due to byproducts of metabolism may play a role in treatments that modify the levels of oxidative damage, either alone or in combination with low-dose irradiation. In this project, we have used human and rodent cell lines and each set of experiments has been carried out on a single cell type. However, low-dose research has to extend into tissues because signaling between cells of different types is likely to influence the responses. Our studies have therefore also included microbeam experiments using a model tissue system that consists of an explant of a small piece of pig ureter grown in culture. The structure of this tissue is similar to that of epithelium and there it relates to the tissues in which carcinoma arises. Our studies have been able to measure bystander-induced changes in the cells growing out from the tissue fragment after it has been targeted with a few radiation tracks to mimic a low-dose exposure.« less

Authors:
; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Gray Laboratory Cancer Research Trust (US)
Sponsoring Org.:
(US)
OSTI Identifier:
806813
Report Number(s):
DOE/ER62877
69980; TRN: US200306%%192
DOE Contract Number:  
FG07-99ER62877
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Resource Relation:
Other Information: PBD: 19 Dec 2002
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
59 BASIC BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES; CARCINOMAS; CHILDREN; DEFECTS; EPITHELIUM; GENETICS; INSTABILITY; IONIZING RADIATIONS; IRRADIATION; MEDICINE; METABOLISM; NEOPLASMS; RADIATION DOSES; RADIATIONS; RODENTS; URETERS

Citation Formats

Michael, Barry D, Held, Kathryn, and Prise, Kevin. Low Dose Studies with Focused X-rays in Cell and Tissue Models: Mechanisms of Bystander and Genomic Instability Responses. United States: N. p., 2002. Web. doi:10.2172/806813.
Michael, Barry D, Held, Kathryn, & Prise, Kevin. Low Dose Studies with Focused X-rays in Cell and Tissue Models: Mechanisms of Bystander and Genomic Instability Responses. United States. https://doi.org/10.2172/806813
Michael, Barry D, Held, Kathryn, and Prise, Kevin. Thu . "Low Dose Studies with Focused X-rays in Cell and Tissue Models: Mechanisms of Bystander and Genomic Instability Responses". United States. https://doi.org/10.2172/806813. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/806813.
@article{osti_806813,
title = {Low Dose Studies with Focused X-rays in Cell and Tissue Models: Mechanisms of Bystander and Genomic Instability Responses},
author = {Michael, Barry D and Held, Kathryn and Prise, Kevin},
abstractNote = {The management of the risks of exposure of people to ionizing radiation is important in relation to its uses in industry and medicine, also to natural and man-made radiation in the environment. The vase majority of exposures are at a very low level of radiation dose. The risks are of inducing cancer in the exposed individuals and a smaller risk of inducing genetic damage that can be transmitted to children conceived after exposure. Studies of these risks in exposed population studies with any accuracy above the normal levels of cancer and genetic defects unless the dose levels are high. In practice, this means that our knowledge depends very largely on the information gained from the follow-up of the survivors of the atomic bombs dropped on Japanese cities. The risks calculated from these high-dose short-duration exposures then have to be projected down to the low-dose long-term exposures that apply generally. Recent research using cells in culture has revealed that the relations hi between high- and low-dose biological damage may be much more complex than had previously been thought. The aims of this and other projects in the DOE's Low-Dose Program are to gain an understanding of the biological actions of low-dose radiation, ultimately to provide information that will lead to more accurate quantification of low-dose risk. Our project is based on the concept that the processes by which radiation induces cancer start where the individual tracks of radiation impact on cells and tissues. At the dose levels of most low-dose exposures, these events are rare and any individual cells only ''sees'' radiation tracks at intervals averaging from weeks to years apart. This contracts with the atomic bomb exposures where, on average, each cell was hit by hundreds of tracks instantaneously. We have therefore developed microbeam techniques that enable us to target cells in culture with any number of tracks, from one upwards. This approach enables us to study the biological basis of the relationship between high- and low-dose exposures. The targeting approach also allows us to study very clearly a newly recognized effect of radiation, the ''bystander effect'', which appears to dominate some low-dose responses and therefore may have a significant role in low-dose risk mechanisms. Our project also addresses the concept that the background of naturally occurring oxidative damage that takes place continually in cells due to byproducts of metabolism may play a role in treatments that modify the levels of oxidative damage, either alone or in combination with low-dose irradiation. In this project, we have used human and rodent cell lines and each set of experiments has been carried out on a single cell type. However, low-dose research has to extend into tissues because signaling between cells of different types is likely to influence the responses. Our studies have therefore also included microbeam experiments using a model tissue system that consists of an explant of a small piece of pig ureter grown in culture. The structure of this tissue is similar to that of epithelium and there it relates to the tissues in which carcinoma arises. Our studies have been able to measure bystander-induced changes in the cells growing out from the tissue fragment after it has been targeted with a few radiation tracks to mimic a low-dose exposure.},
doi = {10.2172/806813},
url = {https://www.osti.gov/biblio/806813}, journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2002},
month = {12}
}