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Title: TEMPERATURE-BASED REACTIVE FLOW MODEL FOR ANFO

Abstract

No abstract prepared.

Authors:
;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Los Alamos National Lab., NM (US)
Sponsoring Org.:
US Department of Energy (US)
OSTI Identifier:
784476
Report Number(s):
LA-UR-01-4072
TRN: AH200137%%130
DOE Contract Number:
W-7405-ENG-36
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: Conference title not supplied, Conference location not supplied, Conference dates not supplied; Other Information: PBD: 1 Aug 2001
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
98 NUCLEAR DISARMAMENT, SAFEGUARDS, AND PHYSICAL PROTECTION; FLOW MODELS; LANL; REACTIVITY

Citation Formats

R. N. MULFORD, and D. C. SWIFT. TEMPERATURE-BASED REACTIVE FLOW MODEL FOR ANFO. United States: N. p., 2001. Web.
R. N. MULFORD, & D. C. SWIFT. TEMPERATURE-BASED REACTIVE FLOW MODEL FOR ANFO. United States.
R. N. MULFORD, and D. C. SWIFT. Wed . "TEMPERATURE-BASED REACTIVE FLOW MODEL FOR ANFO". United States. doi:. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/784476.
@article{osti_784476,
title = {TEMPERATURE-BASED REACTIVE FLOW MODEL FOR ANFO},
author = {R. N. MULFORD and D. C. SWIFT},
abstractNote = {No abstract prepared.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Aug 01 00:00:00 EDT 2001},
month = {Wed Aug 01 00:00:00 EDT 2001}
}

Conference:
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  • Reaction rates depend on temperature as well as on the mechanical state. In shock wave initiation, experimental data almost always comprise mechanical measurements such as shock speed, material speed, compression, and pressure, and are accordingly modeled in terms of these parameters. Omission of temperature is one reason why mechanically based reaction rates do not extrapolate well out with the range of states used to normalize them. The model presented addresses chemical processes directly, enabling chemical kinetic data reported in terms of temperature (and at STP, generally) to be used in shock reaction models. We have recently extended a temperature-based modelmore » for use with ANFO-type formulations. Reactive material is treated as a heterogeneous mixture of components, each of which has its own model for response to dynamic loading (equation of state, strength model, reactions.) A finite-rate equilibration model is used to determine the overall response of the mixture to dynamic loading. In this model of ANFO, the ammonium nitrate and the fuel oil are treated as separate components in the unreacted mixture.« less
  • The Bureau of Mines conducted research to determine the safe operating conditions for using recycled (used) lubricating oil from mining equipment as a partial replacement for diesel fuel to make ANFO-type blasting agents. The use of recycled oil (RO) saves energy, reduces oil imports, and reduces mining costs. Low ambient temperatures may cause these recycled oils to become too viscous for proper absorption by ammonium nitrate (AN) prills and result in poor blast performance, safety hazards, and environmental problems. To help quantify and resolve these issues, viscosity, mixing, and performance tests were conducted at various temperatures. Diesel fuels No. 1more » and No. 2 were studied separately and in blends with 25, 50, and 75% RO. Good quality ANFO mixes (94-6) were produced with dry absorbent prills and blended fuel (No. 1 diesel plus RO) at temperatures as low as {minus}40 F ({minus}40 C) with 75% No. 1/25% RO, and at {minus}20 F ({minus}29 C) with 50/50. Diesel fuel No. 2 also made good mixes as low as {minus}30 F ({minus}34 C) with 75% No. 2/25% RO, and at 0 F ({minus}18 C) with 50/50. Reference detonation velocity tests were conducted in 1.4 in. (3.6 cm) diameter steel pipe at 70 F (21 C) on No. 1 diesel ANFO (94-6), giving an average value of 9,722 ft/s (2,964 m/s). Comparison tests showed good ANFO performance at low temperatures. Based on these results, a practical field method has been developed to help evaluate whether a specific oil blend will mix properly with AN at a low ambient temperature. This method will help to promote the safe and reliable use of RO ANFO at low temperatures, with adequate performance.« less