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Title: SERPENTINITES USED FOR CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION: A POSSIBLE ECONOMIC SOURCE FOR PGE

Abstract

No abstract prepared.

Authors:
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Los Alamos National Lab., NM (US)
Sponsoring Org.:
US Department of Energy (US)
OSTI Identifier:
784104
Report Number(s):
LA-UR-01-4382
TRN: AH200137%%122
DOE Contract Number:
W-7405-ENG-36
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: Conference title not supplied, Conference location not supplied, Conference dates not supplied; Other Information: PBD: 1 Jul 2001
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
58 GEOSCIENCES; CARBON DIOXIDE; ECONOMICS; LANL

Citation Formats

K. A. PORTER. SERPENTINITES USED FOR CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION: A POSSIBLE ECONOMIC SOURCE FOR PGE. United States: N. p., 2001. Web.
K. A. PORTER. SERPENTINITES USED FOR CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION: A POSSIBLE ECONOMIC SOURCE FOR PGE. United States.
K. A. PORTER. 2001. "SERPENTINITES USED FOR CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION: A POSSIBLE ECONOMIC SOURCE FOR PGE". United States. doi:. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/784104.
@article{osti_784104,
title = {SERPENTINITES USED FOR CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION: A POSSIBLE ECONOMIC SOURCE FOR PGE},
author = {K. A. PORTER},
abstractNote = {No abstract prepared.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 2001,
month = 7
}

Conference:
Other availability
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  • The platinum-group elements (PGE: Ru, Rh, Pd, Os, Ir, Pt) are among the most valuable metals in the world. Their myriad uses in electronics, jewelry, catalysis, and the automotive industry have increased PGE demand several fold in the last few decades, but the past few years have seen PGE supply largely unable to keep up with the increasing demand. Although the PGE are found in many types of rock bodies, in most cases they are present in such low concentrations that it is not economically feasible to extract them. The few economically mineable deposits generally fall into two categories: layeredmore » ultramafic intrusive deposits, such as the Bushveld Complex in South Africa, which contain PGE-bearing ore veins; and copper/nickel-bearing veins, such as the Norilsk-Talnakh District in Russia, in which the PGE are extracted as a byproduct of Cu/Ni mining. Only one economic PGE deposit exists in the United States (the Stillwater Complex in Montana), and it is small compared to the Russian and South African deposits (which supply most of the world's PGE needs). The recent interest in the use of serpentinites and ultramafic rocks as possible reservoirs for carbon dioxide sequestration has opened the door to another possible economic source for the PGE. Theoretically, the magnesium silicates in the ultramafic rocks and serpentinites can be reacted with carbon dioxide (either from the air or as a waste stream from a fossil fuel plant) to produce thermodynamically and geologically stable magnesium carbonates, which can be easily disposed of. The deposits being investigated for this process are located throughout the world; there are several in the U.S. alone. The PGE concentrations in these deposits are fairly low, and by themselves the deposits are not economically feasible sources for the PGE. However, part of the proposed carbonation process requires the crushing and magnetic separation of the rocks; the non-magnetic fraction is used for carbonation, while the magnetic fraction is treated to extract iron and other metals. Since most PGE-bearing minerals in serpentinites and ultramafic rocks are magnetic or are associated with magnetic minerals, the magnetic separation of the powder could serve to essentially concentrate the PGE from the rock bodies. Once the PGE-bearing minerals have been separated and concentrated, the PGE may be at economically extractable levels. The primary focus of this research is the investigation of the PGE concentrations in the serpentinites and ultramafic rocks that may be utilized in the carbonation process. The magnetic fraction from a representative serpentinite body will be analyzed for PGE to determine whether or not these rocks may be economic sources of the PGE.« less
  • Concern over the potential effects of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide (CO 2) on global climate has triggered research about ways to mitigate the release of these gases to the atmosphere. A project to study the engineering feasibility and costs of sequestering CO 2 in deep, saline reservoirs was completed as part of a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) program supporting research on novel technologies to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. Study activities included a review of the status of existing technologies that could be used for CO 2 sequestration, development of a preliminary engineering concept for accomplishing the requiredmore » operations, and estimation of costs for sequestration systems. The primary components of the CO 2 sequestration system considered are: · Capture of the CO 2 from the flue gas · Preparation of the CO 2 for transportation (compression and drying) · Transportation of the CO 2 through a pipeline · Injection of the CO 2 into a suitable aquifer. Costs are estimated for sequestration of CO 2 from two types of power plants: pulverized coal with flue gas desulphurization (PC/FGD) and integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC). The sensitivity of cost to a variety of transportation and injection scenarios was also studied. The results show that the engineering aspects of the major components of CO 2 capture and geologic storage are well understood through experience in related industries such as CO 2 production, pipeline transport, and subsurface injection of liquids and gases for gas storage, waste disposal, and enhanced oil recovery. Capital costs for capture and compression and the operational cost for compression are the largest cost components.« less
  • The reactive behavior of a multiphase fluid (supercritical CO{sub 2} and brine) under physical-chemical conditions relevant to geologic storage and sequestration in a carbon repository is largely unknown. Experiments were conducted in a flexible cell hydrothermal apparatus to evaluate multiphase fluid-rock (aquifer plus caprock) reactions that may impact repository integrity.
  • Though still controversial, global warming from increasing atmospheric trace gases is now generally accepted. The role of CO{sub 2}, a greenhouse gas resulting from natural phenomenon and burning of fossil fuels, is particularly important. Several options to sequester CO{sub 2} are described in a technology roadmap that was recently released by the US Department of Energy. These options can be divided into two broad categories. These are: (1) CO{sub 2} burial and (2) CO{sub 2} utilization. The CO{sub 2} burial category includes sequestration in oceans, depleted oil and gas reservoirs, abandoned coal mines, and deep geological formations. Of these, recoverymore » of stranded CH{sub 4} (by displacement with injected CO{sub 2}) from coal mines has the benefit of offsetting some of the overall cost of carbon sequestration. The second category involves utilization of CO{sub 2} as a feedstock for making end use products. This remediation option is attractive for its potential commercial value. One such approach involves recycling carbon in CO{sub 2} by converting it into H{sub 2}-rich synthetic fuels. Various aspects of catalytic hydrogenation of CO{sub 2} by metal complexes have been studied by various groups and are a subject of several recent reviews. Both thermal and photochemical activation of CO{sub 2} by metal complexes is addressed in these reviews. With metal catalysts in heterogeneous mode, a significant amount of work has been carried out with variations of Fe catalysts for synthesis of hydrocarbons via the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) route, modified Cu-ZnO catalysts for methanol synthesis or further conversion of methanol to gasoline (MTG). These energy intensive transformations utilize heterogeneous catalysts that operate between 250 C to 400 C although co-production of water makes the overall reactions exothermic.« less
  • Abstract not provided.