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Title: Signal based motion compensation for synthetic aperture radar

Abstract

The purpose of the Signal Based Motion Compensation (SBMC) for Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) effort is to develop a method to measure and compensate for both down range and cross range motion of the radar in order to provide high quality focused SAR imagery in the absence of precision measurements of the platform motion. Currently SAR systems require very precise navigation sensors for motion compensation. These sensors are very expensive and are often supplied in pairs for reliability. In the case of GPS they can be jammed, further degrading performance. This makes for a potentially very expensive and possibly vulnerable SAR system. SBMC can eliminate or reduce the need for these expensive navigation sensors thus reducing the cost of budget minded SAR systems. The results on this program demonstrated the capability of the SBMC approach.

Authors:
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Technology Service Corporation, Los Angeles, CA (US)
Sponsoring Org.:
US Department of Energy (US)
OSTI Identifier:
764587
DOE Contract Number:
FG03-96ER82294
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Resource Relation:
Other Information: PBD: 7 Jun 1999
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
47 OTHER INSTRUMENTATION; MOTION; MITIGATION; SIGNAL CONDITIONING; NAVIGATION; PERFORMANCE; RADAR; RELIABILITY

Citation Formats

John Kirk. Signal based motion compensation for synthetic aperture radar. United States: N. p., 1999. Web. doi:10.2172/764587.
John Kirk. Signal based motion compensation for synthetic aperture radar. United States. doi:10.2172/764587.
John Kirk. Mon . "Signal based motion compensation for synthetic aperture radar". United States. doi:10.2172/764587. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/764587.
@article{osti_764587,
title = {Signal based motion compensation for synthetic aperture radar},
author = {John Kirk},
abstractNote = {The purpose of the Signal Based Motion Compensation (SBMC) for Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) effort is to develop a method to measure and compensate for both down range and cross range motion of the radar in order to provide high quality focused SAR imagery in the absence of precision measurements of the platform motion. Currently SAR systems require very precise navigation sensors for motion compensation. These sensors are very expensive and are often supplied in pairs for reliability. In the case of GPS they can be jammed, further degrading performance. This makes for a potentially very expensive and possibly vulnerable SAR system. SBMC can eliminate or reduce the need for these expensive navigation sensors thus reducing the cost of budget minded SAR systems. The results on this program demonstrated the capability of the SBMC approach.},
doi = {10.2172/764587},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Jun 07 00:00:00 EDT 1999},
month = {Mon Jun 07 00:00:00 EDT 1999}
}

Technical Report:

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  • Limitations on focused scene size for the Polar Format Algorithm (PFA) for Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) image formation are derived. A post processing filtering technique for compensating the spatially variant blurring in the image is examined. Modifications to this technique to enhance its robustness are proposed.
  • Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) measures radar soundings from a set of locations typically along the flight path of a radar platform vehicle. Optimal focusing requires precise knowledge of the sounding source locations in 3-D space with respect to the target scene. Even data driven focusing techniques (i.e. autofocus) requires some degree of initial fidelity in the measurements of the motion of the radar. These requirements may be quite stringent especially for fine resolution, long ranges, and low velocities. The principal instrument for measuring motion is typically an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU), but these instruments have inherent limi ted precision andmore » accuracy. The question is %22How good does an IMU need to be for a SAR across its performance space?%22 This report analytically relates IMU specifications to parametric requirements for SAR. - 4 - Acknowledgements Th e preparation of this report is the result of a n unfunded research and development activity . Although this report is an independent effort, it draws heavily from limited - release documentation generated under a CRADA with General Atomics - Aeronautical System, Inc. (GA - ASI), and under the Joint DoD/DOE Munitions Program Memorandum of Understanding. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi - program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of En ergy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract AC04-94AL85000.« less
  • The earth's ionosphere consists of an ionized plasma which will interact with any electromagnetic wave propagating through it. The interaction is particularly strong at vhf and uhf frequencies but decreases for higher microwave frequencies. These interaction effects and their relationship to the operation of a wide-bandwidth, synthetic-aperture, space-based radar are examined. Emphasis is placed on the dispersion effects and the polarimetric effects. Results show that high-resolution (wide-bandwidth) and high-quality coherent polarimetrics will be very difficult to achieve below 1 GHz.
  • The earth`s ionosphere consists of an ionized plasma which will interact with any electromagnetic wave propagating through it. The interaction is particularly strong at vhf and uhf frequencies but decreases for higher microwave frequencies. These interaction effects and their relationship to the operation of a wide-bandwidth, synthetic-aperture, space-based radar are examined. Emphasis is placed on the dispersion effects and the polarimetric effects. Results show that high-resolution (wide-bandwidth) and high-quality coherent polarimetrics will be very difficult to achieve below 1 GHz.