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Title: Computer-optimized design of polyethylene-moderated {sup 3}He counters for fast neutrons

Abstract

Because polyethylene-moderated {sup 3}He counters are rugged and reliable, they are generally the instruments of choice for field detection of fast neutrons in gamma-ray backgrounds. Their main drawback is the bulky, massive moderator needed to reduce the incident neutron energies to the sensitive range of the {sup 3}He+n capture reaction. This report discusses an optimization approach that provides a detector with uniform angular response and the maximum detection efficiency per unit mass. The key assumption is that each parameter has a geometrical interpretation and its effect on the response can be evaluated independently from that of the others. Specifically, the detection efficiency can be written as a product of separate functions for the moderator mass, gas pressure, tube position, etc., and the uniformity of the angular response is determined by the symmetry of the moderator dimensions. This analytical model was tested by compiling a comprehensive database of detector efficiencies as functions of the different parameters, including one- versus two-tube detectors, moderator masses from 1 to 6 kg, gas pressures from 1 to 20 atm, etc. In general, the model reproduced both the magnitude and angular dependence of the efficiency to within about 10%. To a high degree, the most importantmore » parameters are polyethylene mass and the quantity of {sup 3}He gas; because of neutron diffusion out of the moderator, the optimum tube positions are near the center of the detector. The highest value of the efficiency per unit mass occurs near 3 kg, a result that requires the most compact detectors to use more than a single {sup 3}He tube. In this case, the optimum detector has two tubes and a total mass of 3.0 kg. Although they could use 4-atm tubes with 2.54-cm diameters, increasing the gas volume could easily provide a 20% increase in efficiency with no changes in other parameters.« less

Authors:
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Los Alamos National Lab., NM (US)
Sponsoring Org.:
US Department of Energy (US)
OSTI Identifier:
756871
Report Number(s):
LA-13695-MS
TRN: US0003860
DOE Contract Number:  
W-7405-ENG-36
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Resource Relation:
Other Information: PBD: 1 May 2000
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
46 INSTRUMENTATION RELATED TO NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY; FAST NEUTRONS; HE-3 COUNTERS; MODERATORS; COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN; POLYETHYLENES; MATHEMATICAL MODELS; PERFORMANCE

Citation Formats

R. C. Byrd. Computer-optimized design of polyethylene-moderated {sup 3}He counters for fast neutrons. United States: N. p., 2000. Web. doi:10.2172/756871.
R. C. Byrd. Computer-optimized design of polyethylene-moderated {sup 3}He counters for fast neutrons. United States. doi:10.2172/756871.
R. C. Byrd. Mon . "Computer-optimized design of polyethylene-moderated {sup 3}He counters for fast neutrons". United States. doi:10.2172/756871. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/756871.
@article{osti_756871,
title = {Computer-optimized design of polyethylene-moderated {sup 3}He counters for fast neutrons},
author = {R. C. Byrd},
abstractNote = {Because polyethylene-moderated {sup 3}He counters are rugged and reliable, they are generally the instruments of choice for field detection of fast neutrons in gamma-ray backgrounds. Their main drawback is the bulky, massive moderator needed to reduce the incident neutron energies to the sensitive range of the {sup 3}He+n capture reaction. This report discusses an optimization approach that provides a detector with uniform angular response and the maximum detection efficiency per unit mass. The key assumption is that each parameter has a geometrical interpretation and its effect on the response can be evaluated independently from that of the others. Specifically, the detection efficiency can be written as a product of separate functions for the moderator mass, gas pressure, tube position, etc., and the uniformity of the angular response is determined by the symmetry of the moderator dimensions. This analytical model was tested by compiling a comprehensive database of detector efficiencies as functions of the different parameters, including one- versus two-tube detectors, moderator masses from 1 to 6 kg, gas pressures from 1 to 20 atm, etc. In general, the model reproduced both the magnitude and angular dependence of the efficiency to within about 10%. To a high degree, the most important parameters are polyethylene mass and the quantity of {sup 3}He gas; because of neutron diffusion out of the moderator, the optimum tube positions are near the center of the detector. The highest value of the efficiency per unit mass occurs near 3 kg, a result that requires the most compact detectors to use more than a single {sup 3}He tube. In this case, the optimum detector has two tubes and a total mass of 3.0 kg. Although they could use 4-atm tubes with 2.54-cm diameters, increasing the gas volume could easily provide a 20% increase in efficiency with no changes in other parameters.},
doi = {10.2172/756871},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2000},
month = {5}
}