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Title: Single transverse mode selectively oxidized vertical cavity lasers

Abstract

Vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) which operate in multiple transverse optical modes have been rapidly adopted into present data communication applications which rely on multi-mode optical fiber. However, operation only in the fundamental mode is required for free space interconnects and numerous other emerging VCSEL applications. Two device design strategies for obtaining single mode lasing in VCSELs based on mode selective loss or mode selective gain are reviewed and compared. Mode discrimination is attained with the use of a thick tapered oxide aperture positioned at a longitudinal field null. Mode selective gain is achieved by defining a gain aperture within the VCSEL active region to preferentially support the fundamental mode. VCSELs which exhibit greater than 3 mW of single mode output power at 850 nm with mode suppression ratio greater than 30 dB are reported.

Authors:
; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (US); Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (US)
Sponsoring Org.:
US Department of Energy (US)
OSTI Identifier:
756085
Report Number(s):
SAND2000-1058C
TRN: AH200021%%402
DOE Contract Number:
AC04-94AL85000
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers IV at Photonics West 2000 Symposium, San Jose, CA (US), 01/26/2000--01/28/2000; Other Information: PBD: 26 Apr 2000
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
42 ENGINEERING; SEMICONDUCTOR LASERS; USES; MODE SELECTION; LASER CAVITIES; MODE CONTROL

Citation Formats

CHOQUETTE,KENT D., GEIB,KENT M., BRIGGS,RONALD D., ALLERMAN,ANDREW A., and HINDI,JANA JO. Single transverse mode selectively oxidized vertical cavity lasers. United States: N. p., 2000. Web.
CHOQUETTE,KENT D., GEIB,KENT M., BRIGGS,RONALD D., ALLERMAN,ANDREW A., & HINDI,JANA JO. Single transverse mode selectively oxidized vertical cavity lasers. United States.
CHOQUETTE,KENT D., GEIB,KENT M., BRIGGS,RONALD D., ALLERMAN,ANDREW A., and HINDI,JANA JO. Wed . "Single transverse mode selectively oxidized vertical cavity lasers". United States. doi:. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/756085.
@article{osti_756085,
title = {Single transverse mode selectively oxidized vertical cavity lasers},
author = {CHOQUETTE,KENT D. and GEIB,KENT M. and BRIGGS,RONALD D. and ALLERMAN,ANDREW A. and HINDI,JANA JO},
abstractNote = {Vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) which operate in multiple transverse optical modes have been rapidly adopted into present data communication applications which rely on multi-mode optical fiber. However, operation only in the fundamental mode is required for free space interconnects and numerous other emerging VCSEL applications. Two device design strategies for obtaining single mode lasing in VCSELs based on mode selective loss or mode selective gain are reviewed and compared. Mode discrimination is attained with the use of a thick tapered oxide aperture positioned at a longitudinal field null. Mode selective gain is achieved by defining a gain aperture within the VCSEL active region to preferentially support the fundamental mode. VCSELs which exhibit greater than 3 mW of single mode output power at 850 nm with mode suppression ratio greater than 30 dB are reported.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Apr 26 00:00:00 EDT 2000},
month = {Wed Apr 26 00:00:00 EDT 2000}
}

Conference:
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  • Vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) sources have been adopted into Gigabit Ethernet applications in a remarkably short time period. VCSELs are particularly suitable for multimode optical fiber local area networks (LANs), due to their reduced threshold current, circular output beam, and inexpensive and high volume manufacture. Moreover, selectively oxidized VCSELs are nearly ideal LAN sources since the oxide aperture within the laser cavity produces strong electrical and optical confinement which enables high electrical to optical conversion efficiency and minimal modal discrimination allowing emission into multiple transverse optical modes. In addition to the large demand for multimode lasers, VCSELs whichmore » emit into a single optical mode are also increasingly sought for emerging applications, which include data communication with single mode optical fiber, bar code scanning, laser printing, optical read/write heads, and modulation spectroscopy. To achieve single mode selectively oxidized VCSELs is a challenging task, since the inherent index confinement within these high performance lasers is very large.« less
  • We show that a buried oxide layer forming a current aperture in an all epitaxial vertical-cavity surface emitting laser has a profound influence on the optical and electrical characteristics of the device. The lateral index variation formed around the oxide current aperture leads to a shift in the cavity resonance wavelength. The resonance wavelength under the oxide layer can thus be manipulated, independent of the as-grown cavity resonance, by adjusting the oxide layer thickness and its placement relative to the active region. In addition, the electrical confinement afforded by the oxide layer enables record low threshold current densities and thresholdmore » voltages in these lasers. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.« less
  • Selectively oxidized vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELS) have been studied by spectrally resolved near field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM). We have obtained spatially and spectrally resolved images of both subthreshold emission and lasing emission from a selectively oxidized VCSEL operating at a wavelength of 850 nm. Below threshold, highly local high gain regions, emitting local intensity maxima within the active area, were observed; these were found to serve as lasing centers just above threshold. Above threshold, the near field spatial modal distributions of low order transverse modes were identified by spectrally analyzing the emission; these were found to bemore » complex and significantly different from those measured in the far field.« less
  • The authors report the high yield fabrication and reproducible performance of selectivity oxidized vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers. They show that liner oxidation rates of AlGaAs without an induction period allows reproducible fabrication of buried oxide current apertures within monolithic distributed Bragg reflectors. The oxide layers do not induce obvious crystalline defects, and continuous wave operation in excess of 650 h has been obtained. The high yield fabrication enables relatively high laser performance over a wide wavelength span. They observe submilliamp threshold currents over a wavelength range of up to 75 nm, and power conversion efficiencies at 1 mW output powermore » of greater than 20% over a 50-nm wavelength range.« less
  • We analyze the threshold properties of small area selectively oxidized vertical cavity lasers. Agreement for threshold gain versus laser size is found using the experimental intrinsic threshold voltage matched with a gain theory, as compared to a two-dimensional optical cavity simulation. Our analysis indicates the increasing threshold current density of small area lasers arises from both increasing threshold gain and the concomitant increasing leakage current. We further show that the optical loss can be reduced for lasers with areas as small as 0.25 {mu}m{sup 2} while maintaining sufficient transverse optical confinement by displacing the apertures longitudinally away from the cavitymore » and reducing the oxide thickness. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}« less