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Title: LDRD final report backside localization of open and shorted IC interconnections LDRD Project (FY98 and FY 99)

Abstract

Two new failure analysis techniques have been developed for backside and front side localization of open and shorted interconnections on ICs. These scanning optical microscopy techniques take advantage of the interactions between IC defects and localized heating using a focused infrared laser ({lambda} = 1,340 nm). Images are produced by monitoring the voltage changes across a constant current supply used to power the IC as the laser beam is scanned across the sample. The methods utilize the Seebeck Effect to localize open interconnections and Thermally-Induced Voltage Alteration (TIVA) to detect shorts. Initial investigations demonstrated the feasibility of TIVA and Seebeck Effect Imaging (SEI). Subsequent improvements have greatly increased the sensitivity of the TIVA/SEI system, reducing the acquisition times by more than 20X and localizing previously unobserved defects. The interaction physics describing the signal generation process and several examples demonstrating the localization of opens and shorts are described. Operational guidelines and limitations are also discussed. The system improvements, non-linear response of IC defects to heating, modeling of laser heating and examples using the improved system for failure analysis are presented.

Authors:
; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (US); Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (US)
Sponsoring Org.:
US Department of Energy (US)
OSTI Identifier:
750173
Report Number(s):
SAND2000-0025
TRN: AH200007%%63
DOE Contract Number:
AC04-94AL85000
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Resource Relation:
Other Information: PBD: 1 Jan 2000
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
42 ENGINEERING; INTEGRATED CIRCUITS; ELECTRIC POTENTIAL; ELECTRICAL FAULTS; OPTICAL MICROSCOPY; OPERATION; RECOMMENDATIONS; DEFECTS; DIAGNOSTIC TECHNIQUES; TESTING

Citation Formats

Cole, E.I. Jr., Tangyunyong, P., Benson, D.A., and Barton, D.L.. LDRD final report backside localization of open and shorted IC interconnections LDRD Project (FY98 and FY 99). United States: N. p., 2000. Web. doi:10.2172/750173.
Cole, E.I. Jr., Tangyunyong, P., Benson, D.A., & Barton, D.L.. LDRD final report backside localization of open and shorted IC interconnections LDRD Project (FY98 and FY 99). United States. doi:10.2172/750173.
Cole, E.I. Jr., Tangyunyong, P., Benson, D.A., and Barton, D.L.. 2000. "LDRD final report backside localization of open and shorted IC interconnections LDRD Project (FY98 and FY 99)". United States. doi:10.2172/750173. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/750173.
@article{osti_750173,
title = {LDRD final report backside localization of open and shorted IC interconnections LDRD Project (FY98 and FY 99)},
author = {Cole, E.I. Jr. and Tangyunyong, P. and Benson, D.A. and Barton, D.L.},
abstractNote = {Two new failure analysis techniques have been developed for backside and front side localization of open and shorted interconnections on ICs. These scanning optical microscopy techniques take advantage of the interactions between IC defects and localized heating using a focused infrared laser ({lambda} = 1,340 nm). Images are produced by monitoring the voltage changes across a constant current supply used to power the IC as the laser beam is scanned across the sample. The methods utilize the Seebeck Effect to localize open interconnections and Thermally-Induced Voltage Alteration (TIVA) to detect shorts. Initial investigations demonstrated the feasibility of TIVA and Seebeck Effect Imaging (SEI). Subsequent improvements have greatly increased the sensitivity of the TIVA/SEI system, reducing the acquisition times by more than 20X and localizing previously unobserved defects. The interaction physics describing the signal generation process and several examples demonstrating the localization of opens and shorts are described. Operational guidelines and limitations are also discussed. The system improvements, non-linear response of IC defects to heating, modeling of laser heating and examples using the improved system for failure analysis are presented.},
doi = {10.2172/750173},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 2000,
month = 1
}

Technical Report:

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  • A new failure analysis technique has been developed for backside and frontside localization of open and shorted interconnections on ICs. This scanning optical microscopy technique takes advantage of the interactions between IC defects and localized heating using a focused infrared laser ({lambda} = 1,340 nm). Images are produced by monitoring the voltage changes across a constant current supply used to power the IC as the laser beam is scanned across the sample. The method utilizes the Seebeck Effect to localize open interconnections and Thermally-Induced Voltage Alteration (TIVA) to detects shorts. The interaction physics describing the signal generation process and severalmore » examples demonstrating the localization of opens and shorts are described. Operational guidelines and limitations are also discussed.« less
  • The CORBA-based Simulator was a Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project that applied simulation techniques to explore critical questions about distributed control architecture. The simulator project used a three-prong approach comprised of a study of object-oriented distribution tools, computer network modeling, and simulation of key control system scenarios. This summary report highlights the findings of the team and provides the architectural context of the study. For the last several years LLNL has been developing the Integrated Computer Control System (ICCS), which is an abstract object-oriented software framework for constructing distributed systems. The framework is capable of implementing large event-drivenmore » control systems for mission-critical facilities such as the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Tools developed in this project were applied to the NIF example architecture in order to gain experience with a complex system and derive immediate benefits from this LDRD. The ICCS integrates data acquisition and control hardware with a supervisory system, and reduces the amount of new coding and testing necessary by providing prebuilt components that can be reused and extended to accommodate specific additional requirements. The framework integrates control point hardware with a supervisory system by providing the services needed for distributed control such as database persistence, system start-up and configuration, graphical user interface, status monitoring, event logging, scripting language, alert management, and access control. The design is interoperable among computers of different kinds and provides plug-in software connections by leveraging a common object request brokering architecture (CORBA) to transparently distribute software objects across the network of computers. Because object broker distribution applied to control systems is relatively new and its inherent performance is roughly threefold less than traditional point-to-point communications, CORBA presented a certain risk to designers. This LDRD thus evaluated CORBA to determine its performance and scaling properties and to optimize its use within the ICCS. Both UNIX (Sun Solaris) and real-time (Wind River VxWorks) operating systems were studied. Performance of ICCS deployment was estimated by measuring software prototypes on a distributed computer testbed and then scaled to the desired operating regime by discrete-event simulation techniques. A study of CORBA protocols continues to guide software optimization as NIF software is being implemented and tested. The message-driven nature of distributed control places heavy demands on computers and network switches, so a complementary simulation of network architectures for several protocols was undertaken using a network modeling tool (OPNET Modeler). Additional workflow simulations were developed in a general simulation tool (Simprocess) to assess system behavior of high-stress operational scenarios. Understanding the risks and decisions that trade-off in designing the framework and supporting hardware architecture was enhanced by a concurrent program of simulation and prototype validation of the ICCS applied to the NIF example.« less
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  • In the event of a nuclear or radiological accident or terrorist event, it is important to identify individuals that can benefit from prompt medical care and to reassure those that do not need it. Achieving these goals will maximize the ability to manage the medical consequences of radiation exposure that unfold over a period of hours, days, weeks, years, depending on dose. Medical interventions that reduce near term morbidity and mortality from high but non-lethal exposures require advanced medical support and must be focused on those in need as soon as possible. There are two traditional approaches to radiation dosimetry,more » physical and biological. Each as currently practiced has strengths and limitations. Physical dosimetry for radiation exposure is routine for selected sites and for individual nuclear workers in certain industries, medical centers and research institutions. No monitoring of individuals in the general population is currently performed. When physical dosimetry is available at the time of an accident/event or soon thereafter, it can provide valuable information in support of accident/event triage. Lack of data for most individuals is a major limitation, as differences in exposure can be significant due to shielding, atmospherics, etc. A smaller issue in terms of number of people affected is that the same dose may have more or less biological effect on subsets of the population. Biological dosimetry is the estimation of exposure based on physiological or cellular alterations induced in an individual by radiation. The best established and precise biodosimetric methods are measurement of the decline of blood cells over time and measurement of the frequency of chromosome aberrations. In accidents or events affecting small numbers of people, it is practical to allocate the resources and time (days of clinical follow-up or specialists laboratory time) to conduct these studies. However, if large numbers of people have been exposed, or fear they may have been, these methods are not suitable. The best current option for triage radiation biodosimetry is self-report of time to onset of emesis after the event, a biomarker that is subject to many false positives. The premise of this project is that greatly improved radiation dosimetry can be achieved by research and development directed toward detection of molecular changes induced by radiation in cells or other biological materials. Basic research on the responses of cells to radiation at the molecular level, particularly of message RNA and proteins, has identified biomolecules whose levels increase (or decrease) as part of cellular responses to radiation. Concerted efforts to identify markers useful for triage and clinical applications have not been reported as yet. Such studies would scan responses over a broad range of doses, below, at and above the threshold of clinical significance in the first weeks after exposure, and would collect global proteome and/or transcriptome information on all tissue samples accessible to either first responders or clinicians. For triage, the goal is to identify those needing medical treatment. Treatment will be guided by refined dosimetry. Achieving this goal entails determining whether radiation exposure was below or above the threshold of concern, using one sample collected within days of an event, with simple devices that first responders either use or distribute for self-testing. For the clinic, better resolution of dose and tissue damage is needed to determine the nature and time sensitivity of therapy, but multiple sampling times may be acceptable and clinical staff and equipment can be utilized. Two complementary areas of research and development are needed once candidate biomarkers are identified, validation of the biomarker responses and validation of devices/instrumentation for detection of responses. Validation of biomarkers per se is confirmation that the dose, time, and tissue specific responses meet the reporting requirements in a high proportion of the population, and that variation among nonexposed people due to age, life-style factors, common medical conditions, variables that are not radiation related, do not lead to unacceptable frequencies of false negatives or false positives. Validation of detection requires testing of devices/instruments for accuracy and reproducibility of results with the intended reagents, sampling protocols, and users. Different technologies, each with intrinsic virtues and liabilities, will be appropriate for RNA and protein biomarkers. Fortunately, device and instrumentation development for other clinical applications is a major industry. Hence the major challenges for radiation biodosimetry are identification of potential radiation exposure biomarkers and development of model systems that enable validation of responses of biomarkers and detection systems.« less