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Title: Energy and cost analysis of residential refrigerators

Abstract

A detailed computer model is developed to calculate energy flows and electricity use for residential refrigerators. Model equations are derived from applications of the first law of thermodynamics, analysis of manufacturers' literature, and related studies. The model is used to evaluate the energy (and associated initial cost) impacts of alternative designs to reduce refrigerator energy use. Model results show that 56 percent of the total heat gain in a typical 0.45 m/sup 3/ (16 ft/sup 3/) top-freezer refrigerator is due to conduction through cabinet walls and doors. The remaining 44 percent is from door openings, heaters, fans, food, gasket area infiltration, and miscellaneous heat sources. Operation of the compressor to remove this heat and maintain the refrigerated spaces at constant temperatures accounts for 70 percent of the unit's electricity use. The remainder is for operation of heaters and fans. Several energy-saving design changes are examined using the energy model. These changes are: increased insulation thickness, improved insulation conductivity, removal of fan from cooled area, use of anti-sweat heater switch, improved compressor efficiency, increased condenser and evaporator surface areas, and elimination of the frost-free feature. Application of all these changes would reduce refrigerator electricity use 71 percent and increase initial costmore » 5 percent. Implementing all these changes except for elimination of the frost-free feature would reduce electricity use 52 percent and increase initial cost 19 percent. These results show that there are large opportunities for reducing refrigerator electricity use with only slight initial cost increases.« less

Authors:
;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab., Tenn. (USA)
OSTI Identifier:
7325133
Report Number(s):
ORNL/CON-6
DOE Contract Number:  
W-7405-ENG-26
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
29 ENERGY PLANNING, POLICY AND ECONOMY; 32 ENERGY CONSERVATION, CONSUMPTION, AND UTILIZATION; ELECTRIC POWER; CONSUMPTION RATES; ENERGY CONSERVATION; REFRIGERATORS; ENERGY CONSUMPTION; RESIDENTIAL SECTOR; COMPUTERS; COST; DESIGN; ECONOMICS; SIMULATION; THERMAL INSULATION; APPLIANCES; ELECTRIC APPLIANCES; GAS APPLIANCES; POWER; REFRIGERATING MACHINERY; 298000* - Energy Planning & Policy- Consumption & Utilization; 320101 - Energy Conservation, Consumption, & Utilization- Residential Buildings- (-1987)

Citation Formats

Hoskins, R.A., and Hirst, E. Energy and cost analysis of residential refrigerators. United States: N. p., 1977. Web. doi:10.2172/7325133.
Hoskins, R.A., & Hirst, E. Energy and cost analysis of residential refrigerators. United States. doi:10.2172/7325133.
Hoskins, R.A., and Hirst, E. Sat . "Energy and cost analysis of residential refrigerators". United States. doi:10.2172/7325133. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/7325133.
@article{osti_7325133,
title = {Energy and cost analysis of residential refrigerators},
author = {Hoskins, R.A. and Hirst, E.},
abstractNote = {A detailed computer model is developed to calculate energy flows and electricity use for residential refrigerators. Model equations are derived from applications of the first law of thermodynamics, analysis of manufacturers' literature, and related studies. The model is used to evaluate the energy (and associated initial cost) impacts of alternative designs to reduce refrigerator energy use. Model results show that 56 percent of the total heat gain in a typical 0.45 m/sup 3/ (16 ft/sup 3/) top-freezer refrigerator is due to conduction through cabinet walls and doors. The remaining 44 percent is from door openings, heaters, fans, food, gasket area infiltration, and miscellaneous heat sources. Operation of the compressor to remove this heat and maintain the refrigerated spaces at constant temperatures accounts for 70 percent of the unit's electricity use. The remainder is for operation of heaters and fans. Several energy-saving design changes are examined using the energy model. These changes are: increased insulation thickness, improved insulation conductivity, removal of fan from cooled area, use of anti-sweat heater switch, improved compressor efficiency, increased condenser and evaporator surface areas, and elimination of the frost-free feature. Application of all these changes would reduce refrigerator electricity use 71 percent and increase initial cost 5 percent. Implementing all these changes except for elimination of the frost-free feature would reduce electricity use 52 percent and increase initial cost 19 percent. These results show that there are large opportunities for reducing refrigerator electricity use with only slight initial cost increases.},
doi = {10.2172/7325133},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Sat Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 1977},
month = {Sat Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 1977}
}

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