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Title: Daily and seasonal activity patterns in the eastern gray squirrel

Abstract

The daily and seasonal activity patterns of the eastern gray squirrel were investigated between July 1, 1971 and September 16, 1972. Seasonal variations existed in the amount of time per day squirrels were active, the time of onset and cessation of activity, and the size of home range. Squirrels were most active in the fall and spring and least active in the winter. Two peaks in activity (morning and evening) with a mid-day resting period were characteristic of the summer activity pattern. During the winter one brief period of activity occurred during the warm mid-day hours. In the fall the time of onset of activity was consistent and occurred 20 to 30 minutes before sunrise. Cessation of activity was also regular and took place 20 to 30 minutes after sunset. Times of onset and cessation of activity were irregular during the winter and summer with onset usually occurring after sunrise and cessation before sunset. Home range size was smallest in winter and largest in late spring and late summer. Male and female range sizes were similar in fall and winter but in the spring and summer ranges of males exceeded those of females. During winter one night nest location wasmore » used per given two week period and daytime activity was restricted to the area around the den site. In spring, summer, and fall each squirrel used between two and three nest locations per two week period and squirrels traveled considerable distance from the den site. Hardwood and cedar forests were heavily utilized by the squirrels with approximately 53 percent of the locations occurring in hardwood forests and 38 percent in cedar forests. Correlations between the amount of time per day squirrels were active and various abiotic and biotic factors were made. Snow cover and/or extremely cold temperatures during the winter and early spring curtailed movement, and rainy weather in summer decreased activity. The availability of acorns in the autumn and the appearance of food in the spring increased movement.« less

Authors:
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis (USA)
OSTI Identifier:
7294639
Report Number(s):
TID-27759
DOE Contract Number:  
EY-76-S-02-1332
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Resource Relation:
Other Information: Thesis
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
59 BASIC BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES; SQUIRRELS; BEHAVIOR; DAILY VARIATIONS; FOOD; FORESTS; RADIO EQUIPMENT; SEASONAL VARIATIONS; SNOW; TEMPERATURE EFFECTS; ANIMALS; ATMOSPHERIC PRECIPITATIONS; ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT; MAMMALS; RODENTS; VARIATIONS; VERTEBRATES; 550100* - Behavioral Biology

Citation Formats

Bland, M E. Daily and seasonal activity patterns in the eastern gray squirrel. United States: N. p., 1977. Web.
Bland, M E. Daily and seasonal activity patterns in the eastern gray squirrel. United States.
Bland, M E. Tue . "Daily and seasonal activity patterns in the eastern gray squirrel". United States.
@article{osti_7294639,
title = {Daily and seasonal activity patterns in the eastern gray squirrel},
author = {Bland, M E},
abstractNote = {The daily and seasonal activity patterns of the eastern gray squirrel were investigated between July 1, 1971 and September 16, 1972. Seasonal variations existed in the amount of time per day squirrels were active, the time of onset and cessation of activity, and the size of home range. Squirrels were most active in the fall and spring and least active in the winter. Two peaks in activity (morning and evening) with a mid-day resting period were characteristic of the summer activity pattern. During the winter one brief period of activity occurred during the warm mid-day hours. In the fall the time of onset of activity was consistent and occurred 20 to 30 minutes before sunrise. Cessation of activity was also regular and took place 20 to 30 minutes after sunset. Times of onset and cessation of activity were irregular during the winter and summer with onset usually occurring after sunrise and cessation before sunset. Home range size was smallest in winter and largest in late spring and late summer. Male and female range sizes were similar in fall and winter but in the spring and summer ranges of males exceeded those of females. During winter one night nest location was used per given two week period and daytime activity was restricted to the area around the den site. In spring, summer, and fall each squirrel used between two and three nest locations per two week period and squirrels traveled considerable distance from the den site. Hardwood and cedar forests were heavily utilized by the squirrels with approximately 53 percent of the locations occurring in hardwood forests and 38 percent in cedar forests. Correlations between the amount of time per day squirrels were active and various abiotic and biotic factors were made. Snow cover and/or extremely cold temperatures during the winter and early spring curtailed movement, and rainy weather in summer decreased activity. The availability of acorns in the autumn and the appearance of food in the spring increased movement.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {1977},
month = {3}
}

Technical Report:
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