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Title: Development of lithium--metal sulfide batteries for load leveling. [Li/KCl-LiCl/Fe sulfides, Li and Li-Si negative electrodes]

Abstract

A multi-element project directed to the development of a lithium--iron sulfide battery for electric utility energy storage is described. This battery uses a molten KCl--LiCl electrolyte and is operated at about 400/sup 0/C. This report describes the work performed on iron sulfide positive electrodes during the period of April 1 to December 30, 1974. The status of associated elements of the project concerned with lithium negative electrodes, ceramic components, and cell design is also presented. Investigations of iron sulfide active materials, current-conductive matrices, and electrode housings were made with the objective of developing low-cost, long-lived iron sulfide electrodes. A number of small electrodes using FeS/sub 1/./sub 5/ (FeS and FeS/sub 2/) were cycled to complete discharge at the C/10 rate for up to 100 cycles without loss of capacity and with active material utilizations and Coulombic efficiencies approaching 100 percent. Capacities of 0.6 Ah/cm/sup 3/ of electrode void volume were easily attained. An FeS electrode prepared from Li/sub 2/S and iron powder in excess performed well. The iron sulfide electrodes were tested in cells using liquid lithium negative electrodes. Cell life is presently limited by separator failure. Scaleup of iron sulfide electrodes from 5 cm/sup 2/ to 25 cm/sup 2/more » in area was carried out successfully. A 100-Wh cell was designed and built with electrodes of 100 cm/sup 2/ size. Preparation of high-purity lithium-resistant ceramic components was inaugurated. A 150-Wh cell is being designed. A new solid lithium--silicon alloy negative electrode was discovered. Lithium release problems with liquid electrodes are eliminated with this solid electrode. The lithium--silicon alloy offers a higher capacity and less voltage loss than the lithium-aluminum alloy, and heat management requirements are alleviated. 13 figures, 5 tables.« less

Authors:
; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Rockwell International Corp., Canoga Park, CA (USA)
OSTI Identifier:
7253425
Report Number(s):
EPRI-116
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
25 ENERGY STORAGE; LITHIUM-SULFUR BATTERIES; ANODES; CATHODES; OFF-PEAK ENERGY STORAGE; BATTERY SEPARATORS; HIGH TEMPERATURE; IRON SULFIDES; LITHIUM BASE ALLOYS; LITHIUM CHLORIDES; PERFORMANCE; POTASSIUM CHLORIDES; PYRITE; SILICON ALLOYS; ALKALI METAL COMPOUNDS; ALLOYS; CHALCOGENIDES; CHLORIDES; CHLORINE COMPOUNDS; ELECTRIC BATTERIES; ELECTROCHEMICAL CELLS; ELECTRODES; ENERGY STORAGE; ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEMS; HALIDES; HALOGEN COMPOUNDS; IRON COMPOUNDS; LITHIUM ALLOYS; LITHIUM COMPOUNDS; LITHIUM HALIDES; METAL-NONMETAL BATTERIES; MINERALS; ORES; POTASSIUM COMPOUNDS; PYRITES; STORAGE; SULFIDES; SULFUR COMPOUNDS; SULFUR ORES; TRANSITION ELEMENT COMPOUNDS; 250901* - Energy Storage- Batteries- Design & Development; 250903 - Energy Storage- Batteries- Materials, Components, & Auxiliaries

Citation Formats

Hall, J., Lai, S. C., McCoy, L., and Saunders, R. Development of lithium--metal sulfide batteries for load leveling. [Li/KCl-LiCl/Fe sulfides, Li and Li-Si negative electrodes]. United States: N. p., 1975. Web. doi:10.2172/7253425.
Hall, J., Lai, S. C., McCoy, L., & Saunders, R. Development of lithium--metal sulfide batteries for load leveling. [Li/KCl-LiCl/Fe sulfides, Li and Li-Si negative electrodes]. United States. doi:10.2172/7253425.
Hall, J., Lai, S. C., McCoy, L., and Saunders, R. Sun . "Development of lithium--metal sulfide batteries for load leveling. [Li/KCl-LiCl/Fe sulfides, Li and Li-Si negative electrodes]". United States. doi:10.2172/7253425. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/7253425.
@article{osti_7253425,
title = {Development of lithium--metal sulfide batteries for load leveling. [Li/KCl-LiCl/Fe sulfides, Li and Li-Si negative electrodes]},
author = {Hall, J. and Lai, S. C. and McCoy, L. and Saunders, R.},
abstractNote = {A multi-element project directed to the development of a lithium--iron sulfide battery for electric utility energy storage is described. This battery uses a molten KCl--LiCl electrolyte and is operated at about 400/sup 0/C. This report describes the work performed on iron sulfide positive electrodes during the period of April 1 to December 30, 1974. The status of associated elements of the project concerned with lithium negative electrodes, ceramic components, and cell design is also presented. Investigations of iron sulfide active materials, current-conductive matrices, and electrode housings were made with the objective of developing low-cost, long-lived iron sulfide electrodes. A number of small electrodes using FeS/sub 1/./sub 5/ (FeS and FeS/sub 2/) were cycled to complete discharge at the C/10 rate for up to 100 cycles without loss of capacity and with active material utilizations and Coulombic efficiencies approaching 100 percent. Capacities of 0.6 Ah/cm/sup 3/ of electrode void volume were easily attained. An FeS electrode prepared from Li/sub 2/S and iron powder in excess performed well. The iron sulfide electrodes were tested in cells using liquid lithium negative electrodes. Cell life is presently limited by separator failure. Scaleup of iron sulfide electrodes from 5 cm/sup 2/ to 25 cm/sup 2/ in area was carried out successfully. A 100-Wh cell was designed and built with electrodes of 100 cm/sup 2/ size. Preparation of high-purity lithium-resistant ceramic components was inaugurated. A 150-Wh cell is being designed. A new solid lithium--silicon alloy negative electrode was discovered. Lithium release problems with liquid electrodes are eliminated with this solid electrode. The lithium--silicon alloy offers a higher capacity and less voltage loss than the lithium-aluminum alloy, and heat management requirements are alleviated. 13 figures, 5 tables.},
doi = {10.2172/7253425},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {1975},
month = {6}
}