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Title: Ozone is mutagenic in Salmonella

Abstract

Ozone is a highly reactive gas that has been tested for genotoxicity in a number of systems. Induced genetic damage resulting from ozone treatment may not be readily observed because of the high toxicity of the chemical and difficulties in generating and administering controlled concentrations. The mutagenicity of ozone was investigated in Salmonella typhimurium using a plate test protocol designed for reactive vapours and gases. Ozone, at two to three consecutive doses, induced weak, albeit statistically significant, mutagenic responses in tester strain TA102 with and without Aroclor-induced rat liver S9 (lowest effective mean concentration of 0.019 ppm; 35 min total exposure). However, dose-related responses were not always obtained. No mutagenicity was detected in strains TA98, TA100, or TA1535, with or without S9. In strain TA104, ozone induced a weak response only at a single dose with S9; this response was not reproducible. Mutagenicity was dependent on the ozone flow rate and total exposure time, with variations in the optimum dose-time regimen leading to toxicity or complete inactivity. The data show that ozone is a very weak bacterial mutagen and only when tested under narrowly prescribed, subtoxic dosing conditions.

Authors:
; ; ;  [1]
  1. (Inveresk Research International Ltd., Tranent (United Kingdom))
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
7235892
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis; (United States); Journal Volume: 19:4
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
63 RADIATION, THERMAL, AND OTHER ENVIRON. POLLUTANT EFFECTS ON LIVING ORGS. AND BIOL. MAT.; OZONE; MUTAGEN SCREENING; LIVER; RATS; SALMONELLA TYPHIMURIUM; ANIMALS; BACTERIA; BODY; DIGESTIVE SYSTEM; GLANDS; MAMMALS; MICROORGANISMS; ORGANS; RODENTS; SALMONELLA; SCREENING; VERTEBRATES; 560300* - Chemicals Metabolism & Toxicology

Citation Formats

Dillon, D., Combes, R., McConville, M., and Zeiger, E. Ozone is mutagenic in Salmonella. United States: N. p., 1992. Web. doi:10.1002/em.2850190412.
Dillon, D., Combes, R., McConville, M., & Zeiger, E. Ozone is mutagenic in Salmonella. United States. doi:10.1002/em.2850190412.
Dillon, D., Combes, R., McConville, M., and Zeiger, E. 1992. "Ozone is mutagenic in Salmonella". United States. doi:10.1002/em.2850190412.
@article{osti_7235892,
title = {Ozone is mutagenic in Salmonella},
author = {Dillon, D. and Combes, R. and McConville, M. and Zeiger, E.},
abstractNote = {Ozone is a highly reactive gas that has been tested for genotoxicity in a number of systems. Induced genetic damage resulting from ozone treatment may not be readily observed because of the high toxicity of the chemical and difficulties in generating and administering controlled concentrations. The mutagenicity of ozone was investigated in Salmonella typhimurium using a plate test protocol designed for reactive vapours and gases. Ozone, at two to three consecutive doses, induced weak, albeit statistically significant, mutagenic responses in tester strain TA102 with and without Aroclor-induced rat liver S9 (lowest effective mean concentration of 0.019 ppm; 35 min total exposure). However, dose-related responses were not always obtained. No mutagenicity was detected in strains TA98, TA100, or TA1535, with or without S9. In strain TA104, ozone induced a weak response only at a single dose with S9; this response was not reproducible. Mutagenicity was dependent on the ozone flow rate and total exposure time, with variations in the optimum dose-time regimen leading to toxicity or complete inactivity. The data show that ozone is a very weak bacterial mutagen and only when tested under narrowly prescribed, subtoxic dosing conditions.},
doi = {10.1002/em.2850190412},
journal = {Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis; (United States)},
number = ,
volume = 19:4,
place = {United States},
year = 1992,
month = 1
}
  • Alternariol and alternariol methyl ether were tested in the Ames Salmonella typhimurium assay, and both were shown, with and without metabolic activation, to be nonmutagenic to strains TA98 and TA100. The finding of other investigators that alternariol methyl ether is weakly mutagenic to Ta98 without metabolic activation could have resulted from the presence of a small amount of one of the highly mutagenic altertoxins in the alternariol methyl ether originally tested. 9 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.
  • High-pressure liquid chromatography and the Salmonella/microsome mutagenicity test was used to look for mutagenic impurities in 11 carcinogens and noncarcinogens. Because of the million-fold range in mutagenic potency observed in the Salmonella test, even trace amounts of potent mutagenic impurities in a nonmutagenic compound could be detected. The mutagenicity of 7-hydroxy-2-acetylaminofluorene, a noncarcinogen in the standard animal carcinogenicity tests, is shown to be due to a small amount of impurity, which is probably the potent carcinogen 2-acetylaminofluorene. This is discussed in relation to the statistical limitations of animal carcinogenicity tests. We also discuss the role of mutagenic impurities in assessingmore » the mutagenicity of environmental (and industrial) chemicals with high-sensitivity mutagenicity assays, such as the Salmonella/microsome test.« less
  • One of the mutagenic byproducts associated with chlorinated humic waters and Kraft pulp bleaching effluents was recently identified as 3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone. This compound and several related chlorofuranones and precursors were synthesized and evaluated for direct-acting mutagenicity in Salmonella typhimurium tester strain TA 100. Mutagenicity was greatest for 3-chloro-4-(dichloromethlyl)-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone, its 5-methoxy derivative, and the precursor in their synthesis, 3-(dichloromethyl)-2,4,4-trichloro-2-butenoic acid. Several of the compounds were tested in the presence of added rat liver homogenate S9 fraction, and in all cases mutagenicity was substantially reduced. An important structural feature which may govern the mutagenic response in these instances appears to be the cismore » arrangement of CHCl/sub 2/ and Cl substituents on a carbon-carbon double bond. These compounds may also be transformed in vitro to the same acyclic chlorine substituted alpha, beta-unsaturated aldehyde derivative, which is proposed to be the agent responsible for the observed mutagenicity.« less
  • The presence of mutagens among crude airborne particulate extracts, by the Ames bioassay, has been recorded in a variety of geographic loci. However, the role such complex mixtures play in producing synergistic or antagonistic effects on mutagenesis has not been adequately investigated. To establish mutagenic interaction patterns of these agents samples of acetone extracts of crude and size-classified particulates were tested for mutagenicity by the Ames bioassay with tester strains TA100 and TA98. A dose-response mutagenicity was visible in the crude and size-classified particulate extracts. Both direct and indirect acting frameshift and base-substitution mutagens were detected. Analysis of the datamore » with respect to synergism and antagonism indicate that the mutagenic activity of benzo(a)pyrene (BAP) (2ug/plate) and 2-aminoanthracene (2AA) (1.5 ug/plate) is antagonized significantly by mutagenic and non-mutagenic crude particulate extracts (400ug/plate). The same concentration of crude extracts markedly increased cell survival to BAP and 2AA. Size-fractionation demonstrated that the antimutagenic potency over the crude extract increased appreciably as the particle size decreased, with particles of less than 1.5 um showing the greatest antigenotoxic effect.« less