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Title: Studies on prenatal and postnatal development in rats exposed to 60-Hz electric fields

Abstract

A series of three experiments was performed to determine the effects of 30-day exposures to uniform 60-Hz electric fields (100 kV/m) on reproduction and on growth and development in the fetuses and offspring of rats. In the first experiment, exposure of females for 6 days prior to and during the mating period did not affect their reproductive performance, and continued exposure through 20 days of gestation (dg) did not affect the viability, size, or morphology of their fetuses. In the second experiment, exposure of the pregnant rat was begun on 0 dg and continued until the resulting offspring reached 8 days of age. In the third experiment, exposure began at 17 dg and continued through 25 days of postnatal life. In the second and third experiments, no statistically significant differences suggesting impairment of the growth or survival of exposed offspring were detected. In the second experiment, a significantly greater percentage of the exposed offspring showed movement, standing, and grooming at 14 days of age than among-sham-exposed offspring. There was a significant decrease at 14 days in the percentage of exposed offspring displaying the righting reflex in the second experiment and negative geotropism in the third experiment. These differences were allmore » transient and were not found when the animals were tested again at 21 days of age. Evaluation of the reproductive integrity of the offspring of the second experiment did not disclose any deficits.« less

Authors:
; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Biology and Chemistry Department, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, Washington
OSTI Identifier:
7188374
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Bioelectromagnetics (N.Y.); (United States); Journal Volume: 5:1
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
63 RADIATION, THERMAL, AND OTHER ENVIRON. POLLUTANT EFFECTS ON LIVING ORGS. AND BIOL. MAT.; ELECTRIC FIELDS; BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS; FETUSES; GROWTH; HZ RANGE; PRENATAL EXPOSURE; RATS; REPRODUCTION; ANIMALS; FREQUENCY RANGE; MAMMALS; RODENTS; VERTEBRATES; 560400* - Other Environmental Pollutant Effects

Citation Formats

Sikov, M.R., Montgomery, L.D., Smith, L.G., and Phillips, R.D. Studies on prenatal and postnatal development in rats exposed to 60-Hz electric fields. United States: N. p., 1984. Web. doi:10.1002/bem.2250050111.
Sikov, M.R., Montgomery, L.D., Smith, L.G., & Phillips, R.D. Studies on prenatal and postnatal development in rats exposed to 60-Hz electric fields. United States. doi:10.1002/bem.2250050111.
Sikov, M.R., Montgomery, L.D., Smith, L.G., and Phillips, R.D. Sun . "Studies on prenatal and postnatal development in rats exposed to 60-Hz electric fields". United States. doi:10.1002/bem.2250050111.
@article{osti_7188374,
title = {Studies on prenatal and postnatal development in rats exposed to 60-Hz electric fields},
author = {Sikov, M.R. and Montgomery, L.D. and Smith, L.G. and Phillips, R.D.},
abstractNote = {A series of three experiments was performed to determine the effects of 30-day exposures to uniform 60-Hz electric fields (100 kV/m) on reproduction and on growth and development in the fetuses and offspring of rats. In the first experiment, exposure of females for 6 days prior to and during the mating period did not affect their reproductive performance, and continued exposure through 20 days of gestation (dg) did not affect the viability, size, or morphology of their fetuses. In the second experiment, exposure of the pregnant rat was begun on 0 dg and continued until the resulting offspring reached 8 days of age. In the third experiment, exposure began at 17 dg and continued through 25 days of postnatal life. In the second and third experiments, no statistically significant differences suggesting impairment of the growth or survival of exposed offspring were detected. In the second experiment, a significantly greater percentage of the exposed offspring showed movement, standing, and grooming at 14 days of age than among-sham-exposed offspring. There was a significant decrease at 14 days in the percentage of exposed offspring displaying the righting reflex in the second experiment and negative geotropism in the third experiment. These differences were all transient and were not found when the animals were tested again at 21 days of age. Evaluation of the reproductive integrity of the offspring of the second experiment did not disclose any deficits.},
doi = {10.1002/bem.2250050111},
journal = {Bioelectromagnetics (N.Y.); (United States)},
number = ,
volume = 5:1,
place = {United States},
year = {Sun Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 1984},
month = {Sun Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 1984}
}
  • Numerous hematologic and serum chemistry variables were examined in rats exposed to unperturbed 60-Hz electric fields at 100 kV/m for 15, 30, 60, or 120 days. Each study was replicated once. Rigorous statistical evaluations of these data did not detect any consistent effect of the electric field for exposures of up to 120 days. It was, however, not unusual in any individual study to detect certain variables that were significantly different between the exposed and sham-exposed animals. This emphasizes the need for replicate designs and appropriate statistical analyses when investigating chemical or physical insults that may have minimal influence onmore » biologic function.« less
  • Previous studies have raised the possibility of reproductive and developmental changes in miniature swine chronically exposed to a strong 60-Hz electric field. Two replicate experiments on rats were performed to determine if similar changes could be detected in animals exposed under a comparable regime, which was based on average, induced-current densities and on the chronology of reproductive development, as dosimetrically and biologically scaled. Beginning at three months of age, female rats of the F0 generation and their subsequent offspring were chronically exposed to a 60-Hz electric field (100 kV/m unperturbed) for 19 h/day for the duration of experimentation. After fourmore » weeks of exposure, F0 female rats were mated to unexposed male rats during the field-off period. No significant developmental effects were detected in their litters, confirming our previous results with swine and rats. The F0 females were mated for a second time at 7.2 months of age, and the fetuses were evaluated shortly before term. In the first experiments, the incidence of intrauterine mortality was significantly less in exposed than in sham-exposed litters, and there was a tendency (P = .12) for an increased incidence of malformed fetuses in exposed litters. Neither end point was significantly affected in the second experiment. Copulatory behavior of the female F1 offspring, which were bred at three months of age, was not affected in either experiment. There was a statistically significant decrease in the fertility of F1 exposed females and a significant increase in the fraction of exposed litters with malformed fetuses in the first experiment; both end points were essentially the same in the sham and exposed groups of the second experiment. That the significant effects detected in the first experiment were not seen in the second may be attributed to random or biological variation.« less
  • Levels of brain neurotransmitters and their metabolites, as well as concentrations of enzymes associated with their synthesis and metabolism, fluctuate during the day in patterns defined as circadian. The present study examined these rhythms in albino rats exposed to 60-Hz electric fields. Thirty-six animals were exposed to a 39 kV/m field for 4 weeks, 20 h/day, in a parallel-plate electrode system. A group of 36 sham animals was similarly handled and housed in a nonenergized exposure system. On the sampling day, animals were sacrificed at 4-h intervals throughout the 24-h day. Brains were removed, dissected, and kept frozen until chemicallymore » analyzed. The levels of biogenic amines and their acidic metabolites in the striatum, hypothalamus, and hippocampus were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-ECD) methods. Repeated exposure to 60-Hz electric fields produced significant alterations in the diurnal rhythms of several biogenic amines: dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC, the primary metabolite of dopamine in the rat) in the striatum, and norepinephrine, dopamine, and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA; serotonin metabolite) in the hypothalamus. Levels of serotonin in the striatum and hypothalamus showed clear circadian patterns that was not affected by the field. No diurnal or field-related changes were observed in the hippocampal amines.« less
  • Recently, it has been reported that exposure to high-strength electric fields can influence electrocardiogram (ECG) patterns, heart rates, and blood pressures in various species of animals. Our studies were designed to evaluate these reported effects and to help clarify some of the disagreement present in the literature. Various cardiovascular variables were measured in Sprague-Dawley rats exposed or sham-exposed to 60-Hz electric fields at 80 to 100 kV/m for periods up to four months. No significant differences in heart rates, ECG patterns, blood pressures, or vascular reactivity were observed between exposed and sham-exposed rats after 8 hours, 40 hours, 1 month,more » or 4 months of exposure. Our studies cannot be directly compared to the work of other investigators because of differences in animal species and electric-field characteristics. However, our failure to detect any cardiovascular changes may have been the result of (1) eliminating secondary field effects such as shocks, audible noise, corona, and ozone; (2) minimizing steady-state microcurrents between the mouth of the animal and watering devices; and (3) minimizing electric-field-induced vibration of the electrodes and animal cages.« less
  • A measure of taste-aversion (TA) learning was used in three experiments to 1) determine whether exposure to intense 60-Hz electric fields can produce TA learning in male Sprague-Dawley rats, and (2) establish a dose-response function for the behavior in question. In Experiment 1, four groups of eight rats each were distributed into one of two exposures (69 +/- 5 kV/m or 133 +/- 10 kV/m) or into one of two sham-exposure groups. Conditioning trials paired 0.1% sodium saccharin in water with 3 h of exposure to a 60-Hz electric field. Following five conditioning trials, a 20-min, two-bottle preference test betweenmore » water and saccharin-flavored water failed to reveal TA conditioning in exposed groups. In Experiment 2, four groups of eight rats each (34 +/- 2 kV/m or 133 +/- 10 kV/m and two sham-exposed groups) were treated as before. Electric-field exposure had no effect on TA learning. Experiment 3 tested for a possible synergy between a minimal dose (for TA learning) of cyclophosphamide (6 mg/kg) and 5 h of exposure to 133 +/- 10 kV/m electric fields in a dark environment under conditions otherwise similar to those of Experiments 1 and 2. The results indicated no TA learning as reflected in the relative consumption of saccharin. 16 references, 6 figures, 1 table.« less