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Title: Geologic description of the San Andres reservoir facies in the Mabee field

Abstract

The Mabee field is located in Andrews and Martin counties, Texas, approximately 16 mi northwest of Midland in the Permian basin. Production is from the upper Permian San Andres dolomite at an average depth of 4700 ft. The San Andres/Grayburg formations are the most prolific oil-producing formations in the Permian basin, with total production over 10 billion bbl, and an estimated additional 3.8 billion bbl to be recovered by conventional secondary and tertiary methods. The Mabee field has produced over 90 MMBO by primary and secondary methods since its discovery in 1943. A tertiary CO{sub 2} flood will be implemented in 1992. An essential prerequisite to a successful CO{sub 2} project is a detailed reservoir description and facies analysis. Examination of over 5000 ft of core established six major facies in an overall shallowing-upward sequence. The cap rock consists of dense anhydritic dolomites of the supratidal and oncolite facies. Production primarily is from the underlying dolomitized subtidal and ooid facies. Sandstones interfinger with the ooid facies, but are tightly cemented and act as barriers to fluid migration. The lower-most open-marine facies is below the oil/water contact for the field. Reservoir characterization improves the planning and operation of an enhanced recoverymore » project.« less

Authors:
 [1]
  1. (Texaco Exploration and Production Inc., Midland, TX (United States))
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
7153060
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 7153060
Report Number(s):
CONF-9204139--
Journal ID: ISSN 0149-1423; CODEN: AABUD
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: AAPG Bulletin (American Association of Petroleum Geologists); (United States); Journal Volume: 76:4; Conference: American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG) Southwest section meeting, Midland, TX (United States), 21-24 Apr 1992
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
02 PETROLEUM; PETROLEUM DEPOSITS; PETROLEUM GEOLOGY; TEXAS; CARBONATE ROCKS; OIL SATURATION; PERMIAN BASIN; PERMIAN PERIOD; RESERVOIR ROCK; WATER SATURATION; DEVELOPED COUNTRIES; FEDERAL REGION VI; GEOLOGIC AGES; GEOLOGIC DEPOSITS; GEOLOGY; MINERAL RESOURCES; NORTH AMERICA; PALEOZOIC ERA; RESOURCES; ROCKS; SATURATION; SEDIMENTARY ROCKS; USA 020200* -- Petroleum-- Reserves, Geology, & Exploration

Citation Formats

Miller, K.D.. Geologic description of the San Andres reservoir facies in the Mabee field. United States: N. p., 1992. Web.
Miller, K.D.. Geologic description of the San Andres reservoir facies in the Mabee field. United States.
Miller, K.D.. Wed . "Geologic description of the San Andres reservoir facies in the Mabee field". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_7153060,
title = {Geologic description of the San Andres reservoir facies in the Mabee field},
author = {Miller, K.D.},
abstractNote = {The Mabee field is located in Andrews and Martin counties, Texas, approximately 16 mi northwest of Midland in the Permian basin. Production is from the upper Permian San Andres dolomite at an average depth of 4700 ft. The San Andres/Grayburg formations are the most prolific oil-producing formations in the Permian basin, with total production over 10 billion bbl, and an estimated additional 3.8 billion bbl to be recovered by conventional secondary and tertiary methods. The Mabee field has produced over 90 MMBO by primary and secondary methods since its discovery in 1943. A tertiary CO{sub 2} flood will be implemented in 1992. An essential prerequisite to a successful CO{sub 2} project is a detailed reservoir description and facies analysis. Examination of over 5000 ft of core established six major facies in an overall shallowing-upward sequence. The cap rock consists of dense anhydritic dolomites of the supratidal and oncolite facies. Production primarily is from the underlying dolomitized subtidal and ooid facies. Sandstones interfinger with the ooid facies, but are tightly cemented and act as barriers to fluid migration. The lower-most open-marine facies is below the oil/water contact for the field. Reservoir characterization improves the planning and operation of an enhanced recovery project.},
doi = {},
journal = {AAPG Bulletin (American Association of Petroleum Geologists); (United States)},
number = ,
volume = 76:4,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Apr 01 00:00:00 EST 1992},
month = {Wed Apr 01 00:00:00 EST 1992}
}

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  • The lower San Andres dolomite reservoir in the Mallet lease area of Slaughter field, a giant stratigraphic trap in Hockley County, Texas, has been the subject of integrated geologic and engineering reservoir analyses. The geologic study provided a good physical model from which engineering studies could account successfully for past production history and predict the response to future operations. The Mallet reservoir, which is about 200 ft thick, is stratified into a repeating sequence of permeable and porous, laterally extensive units that dip southward at a rate of 50-60 ft/mi. This stratification results from the vertical and orderly repetition ofmore » the facies in sedimentary sequences. Each sequence begins with a minor disconformity, above which are subtidal sediments, then intertidal, and finally supratidal sediments, representing repeated progradation of mud-flat and adjacent nearshore marine sediments over deposits of the shallow marine shelf. Only the subtidal facies is sufficiently permeable to be considered net pay. Anhydrite cement strongly affects porosity and permeability because it preferentially occludes larger pores and causes fluid flow to be controlled by the very fine matrix pore system. The various geologic factors that influence reservoir quality in numerical models may be incorporated by defining model layers on the basis of flow units. Flow units are subdivisions of the reservoir that are expected to behave similarly to the oil recovery process. Their geometries are defined on the basis of geologic facies and patterns of diagenesis, and they are assigned properties determined from petrophysical measurements of porosity, permeability, fluid saturations, and other critical aspects of reservoir quality.« less
  • Although nearly 100% (19 million bbl of oil) of the estimated recoverable oil in the Emma San Andres reservoir has been produced, indications are that as much as 15 million bbl of recoverable, movable oil remains. Detailed study of facies and diagenesis in the reservoir reveals considerable lateral and vertical variability, which has important implications for recovery and injection efficiencies in the field. The upper San Andres Formation in the Emma field comprises a shallowing-upward sequence of pervasively dolomitized, shallow-water subtidal to supratidal carbonates that accumulated on a gently east-sloping ramp. The lowermost part of the reservoir interval is composedmore » of laterally extensive fusulinid packstone deposited in an open-marine ramp setting. Abruptly overlying this facies is a sequence of interbedded fusulinid/algal grainstone, formed in a migrating sand-shoal complex, and burrowed, skeletal mudstone deposited on a restricted inner ramp. The grainstone is restricted to the western and central parts of the field. These deposits are overlain by pisolitic and cryptalgal mudstones and terrigenous siliciclastics of supratidal origin. Anydrite is abundant throughout the section. Porosity and permeability are facies controlled. Highest permeabilities are developed in shoal complex grainstone (100 md) and in fusulinid packstone (925-50 md). Lateral and vertical facies variations resulted in considerable reservoir heterogeneity. Trace-element and isotope data indicate that most of the San Andres dolomite and associated sulfate (anhydrite) precipitated from downward-moving, seawater-derived brines during shallow burial in the late Guadalupian. Subsequent anhydrite dissolution has locally enhanced original porosity.« less
  • Roberts unit is a mature San Andres waterflood project located in Wasson field, Yoakum County, Texas. Texaco, as operator, has evaluated the reservoir for CO{sub 2} flooding, and a four-phased CO{sub 2} project has been designed for the unit. A critical aspect of CO{sub 2} flood design is the development of geologic reservoir management, such as flood monitoring and evaluation of infill drilling. The geologic reservoir model established for the southeastern part of the unit (the CO{sub 2} Phase III area) is an example of this design. The reservoir consists of stacked carbonate depositional sequences. The cyclic nature of thesemore » depositional sequences is reflected in both core-defined lithofacies and porosity log character. Sequences consist of basal mudstones, restricted-shelf skeletal wackestones, open-shelf skeletal wackestones and packstones, solution and brecciated zones, and peloidal packstone caps. Intertidal mudstones and wackestones occur at the top of the reservoir and in the overlying reservoir seal. Porosity distribution is controlled by diagenetic events, but these events are closely related to depositional facies. Reservoir geometry and reservoir quality are interpreted from study of carbonate lithofacies, porosity and permeability relationships, and injection characteristics. Depositional sequences are subdivided into layers (flow units) for use in reservoir simulation. Log normalization, core description, porosity interpretation, reservoir mapping, three-dimensional modeling, and joint effort between project geologists and engineers contributed to development of the reservoir model.« less
  • Wasson field, a broad, domal structure, is located on the southeastern part of the Northwest shelf. Mobil Producing Texas and New Mexico, Inc., owns and operates the 640-ac H. O. Mahoney lease on the northeast flank of Wasson field. The lease produces from the Permian San Andres, Clear Fork, and Wichita-Albany Formations. The San Andres is a dolomitized carbonate deposited in an arid, tidal-flat environment with subtidal through supratidal facies in a regressive, shoaling-upward sequence. Production occurs from two intervals, the First Porosity and the Main Pay. Average reservoir parameters are 193 net ft, 13% porosity, and 6.2-md permeability. Themore » first porosity interval, consisting of zones F1-F5, is 400 ft below the San Andres top and is comprised of porous supratidal and intertidal dolomites. These zones have a discontinuous, stringerlike geometry and display poorer reservoir development. The principal reservoir is the continuous Main Pay interval, which consists of zones M1-M8 and underlies the First Porosity at an average depth of 5,100 ft. The best porosity and permeability are developed within dolomitized pelloidal packstones of zones M1-M3 and F4. These packstones, deposited subparallel to the San Andres shoreline, exhibit excellent intercrystalline and leached-vuggy porosity with good permeability and lateral continuity. Understanding the depositional history allowed the identification of northeast to southwest porosity and permeability trends at Mahoney. Interbedded within the more porous zones are dolomitized mudstones displaying poor porosity and permeability. These laterally continuous layers restrict vertical fluid movement. Estimated original oil in place is 75,150 Mstb. About 80% of this volume is contained in zones F-4 and M1-M3 and represents most of the flow capacity. Carbon dioxide injection began October 17, 1985.« less
  • The ODC field, operated by American Petrofina Company of Texas, is located in Gaines County, Texas, on the northwestern shelf of the Midland basin (Central Basin platform). Consisting of 53 wells, the ODC field produces from 80,000 net ac involved in a waterflood injection program that was initiated in 1969. The primary reservoirs are dolomitic carbonates in the Permian San Andres Formation. Since flooding was initiated, 836,043 bbl of crude oil has been produced from an average reservoir depth of 5500 ft subsea. To maximize production using a proposed carbon dioxide injection program, porosity and permeability trends were analyzed, detailingmore » lateral and vertical continuity, and the depositional and diagenetic processes controlling porosity and permeability were investigated, using data from five well cores and corresponding laboratory reports.« less