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Title: Skin optics

Abstract

Quantitative dosimetry in the treatment of skin disorders with (laser) light requires information on propagation of light in the skin related to the optical properties of the individual skin layers. This involves the solution of the integro-differential equation of radiative transfer in a model representing skin geometry, as well as experimental methods to determine the optical properties of each skin layer. These activities are unified under the name skin optics. This paper first reviews the current status of tissue optics, distinguishing between the cases of: dominant absorption, dominant scattering, and scattering about equal to absorption. Then, previously published data as well as some current unpublished data on (human) stratum corneum, epidermis and dermis, have been collected and/or (re)analyzed in terms of absorption coefficient, scattering coefficient, and anisotropy factor of scattering. The results are that the individual skin layers show strongly forward scattering (anisotropy factors between 0.7 and 0.9). The absorption and scattering data show that for all wavelengths considered scattering is much more important than absorption. Under such circumstances, solutions to the transport equation for a multilayer skin model and finite beam laser irradiation are currently not yet available. Hence, any quantitative dosimetry for skin treated with (laser) light ismore » currently lacking.« less

Authors:
; ; ;
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
7104223
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: IEEE Transactions on Bio-Medical Engineering (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers); (USA); Journal Volume: 36:12
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
63 RADIATION, THERMAL, AND OTHER ENVIRON. POLLUTANT EFFECTS ON LIVING ORGS. AND BIOL. MAT.; LASER RADIATION; BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS; SKIN; SENSITIVITY; ABSORPTION; IN VITRO; LASERS; MAN; OPTICAL PROPERTIES; SKIN DISEASES; ANIMALS; BODY; DISEASES; ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION; MAMMALS; ORGANS; PHYSICAL PROPERTIES; PRIMATES; RADIATIONS; VERTEBRATES; 560400* - Other Environmental Pollutant Effects

Citation Formats

van Gemert, M.J., Jacques, S.L., Sterenborg, H.J., and Star, W.M. Skin optics. United States: N. p., 1989. Web. doi:10.1109/10.42108.
van Gemert, M.J., Jacques, S.L., Sterenborg, H.J., & Star, W.M. Skin optics. United States. doi:10.1109/10.42108.
van Gemert, M.J., Jacques, S.L., Sterenborg, H.J., and Star, W.M. 1989. "Skin optics". United States. doi:10.1109/10.42108.
@article{osti_7104223,
title = {Skin optics},
author = {van Gemert, M.J. and Jacques, S.L. and Sterenborg, H.J. and Star, W.M.},
abstractNote = {Quantitative dosimetry in the treatment of skin disorders with (laser) light requires information on propagation of light in the skin related to the optical properties of the individual skin layers. This involves the solution of the integro-differential equation of radiative transfer in a model representing skin geometry, as well as experimental methods to determine the optical properties of each skin layer. These activities are unified under the name skin optics. This paper first reviews the current status of tissue optics, distinguishing between the cases of: dominant absorption, dominant scattering, and scattering about equal to absorption. Then, previously published data as well as some current unpublished data on (human) stratum corneum, epidermis and dermis, have been collected and/or (re)analyzed in terms of absorption coefficient, scattering coefficient, and anisotropy factor of scattering. The results are that the individual skin layers show strongly forward scattering (anisotropy factors between 0.7 and 0.9). The absorption and scattering data show that for all wavelengths considered scattering is much more important than absorption. Under such circumstances, solutions to the transport equation for a multilayer skin model and finite beam laser irradiation are currently not yet available. Hence, any quantitative dosimetry for skin treated with (laser) light is currently lacking.},
doi = {10.1109/10.42108},
journal = {IEEE Transactions on Bio-Medical Engineering (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers); (USA)},
number = ,
volume = 36:12,
place = {United States},
year = 1989,
month =
}
  • An integrated review of the transfer of optical radiation into human skin is presented, aimed at developing useful models for photomedicine. The component chromophores of epidermis and stratum corneum in general determine the attenuation of radiation in these layers, moreso than does optical scattering. Epidermal thickness and melanization are important factors for UV wavelengths less than 300 nm, whereas the attenuation of UVA (320-400 nm) and visible radiation is primarily via melanin. The selective penetration of all optical wavelengths into psoriatic skin can be maximized by application of clear lipophilic liquids, which decrease regular reflectance by a refractive-index matching mechanism.more » Sensitivity to wavelengths less than 320 nm can be enhanced by prolonged aqueous bathing, which extracts urocanic acid and other diffusible epidermal chromophores. Optical properties of the dermis are modelled using the Kubelka-Munk approach, and calculations of scattering and absorption coefficients are presented. This simple approach allows estimates of the penetration of radiation in vivo using noninvasive measurements of cutaneous spectral remittance (diffuse reflectance). Although the blood chromophores Hb, HbO/sup 2/, and bilirubin determine dermal absorption of wavelengths longer than 320 nm, scattering by collagen fibers largely determines the depths to which these wavelengths penetrate the dermis, and profoundly modifies skin colors. An optical ''window'' exists between 600 and 1300 nm, which offers the possibility of treating large tissue volumes with certain long-wavelength photosensitizers. Moreover, whenever photosensitized action spectra extend across the near UV and/or visible spectrum, judicious choice of wavelengths allows some selection of the tissue layers directly affected.« less
  • An improved version of a fiber optics luminescence monitor, the prototype luminoscope II, is evaluated for in situ quantitative measurements. The instrument was developed to detect traces of luminescing organic contaminants on skin. An electronic background-nulling system was design and incorporated into the instrument to compensate for various skin background emissions. A dose-response curve for a coal liquid spotted on mouse skin was established. The results illustrated the usefulness of the instrument for in vivo detection of organic materials on laboratory mouse skin.
  • Skin permeability is widely considered to be mechanistically implicated in chemically-induced skin sensitization. Although many chemicals have been identified as skin sensitizers, there have been very few reports analyzing the relationships between molecular structure and skin permeability of sensitizers and non-sensitizers. The goals of this study were to: (i) compile, curate, and integrate the largest publicly available dataset of chemicals studied for their skin permeability; (ii) develop and rigorously validate QSAR models to predict skin permeability; and (iii) explore the complex relationships between skin sensitization and skin permeability. Based on the largest publicly available dataset compiled in this study, wemore » found no overall correlation between skin permeability and skin sensitization. In addition, cross-species correlation coefficient between human and rodent permeability data was found to be as low as R{sup 2} = 0.44. Human skin permeability models based on the random forest method have been developed and validated using OECD-compliant QSAR modeling workflow. Their external accuracy was high (Q{sup 2}{sub ext} = 0.73 for 63% of external compounds inside the applicability domain). The extended analysis using both experimentally-measured and QSAR-imputed data still confirmed the absence of any overall concordance between skin permeability and skin sensitization. This observation suggests that chemical modifications that affect skin permeability should not be presumed a priori to modulate the sensitization potential of chemicals. The models reported herein as well as those developed in the companion paper on skin sensitization suggest that it may be possible to rationally design compounds with the desired high skin permeability but low sensitization potential. - Highlights: • It was compiled the largest publicly-available skin permeability dataset. • Predictive QSAR models were developed for skin permeability. • No concordance between skin sensitization and skin permeability has been found. • Structural rules for optimizing sensitization and penetration were established.« less
  • The kinetics of cellular proliferation in plucked and unplucked dorsal skin of mice after local x-irradiation are described, in relation to the time course of the gross desquamation reaction in skin of the dorsum and or the foot. Radiation was with 250 kV x rays at a dose rate of 325 rads/min to soft tissue over a range of 0 to 3500 rads. (auth)