skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: High performance metal/air fuel cells. Part 1. General review. [Li, Al, Ca, Cd, Mg]

Abstract

Metal/air fuel cells are reviewed in terms of their potential application in electric vehicles. Attention is focused on those metals (light alkali and alkaline earth metals, and aluminum) which, in combination with oxygen, have theoretical energy densities (2--13 kWh/kg-metal) exceeding that of gasoline (utilized in automobiles at 2--3 kWh/kg). Lithium and aluminum have yielded 8- and 4 kWh/kg, respectively, in laboratory experimental cells. The slurry Zn/air system achieves 0.85 kWh/kg-Zn in prototype vehicle cells and is reviewed for comparison. Calcium can probably yield 1.8 kWh/kg-Ca, but its potential as a fuel has not yet been fully explored. The remaining metals appear to be unsuitable for use in aqueous electrolyte fuel cells. The discharge characteristics of lithium, aluminum, and (possibly) calcium/air cells indicate the potential for electric vehicles of the highway performance and minimum range (300 miles) of subcompact automobiles, rapid refueling for unlimited range extension, and the storage in the fuel cell of sufficient metal for ranges in excess of 1000 miles. Barriers to the concept are the economic necessity of recycling cell reaction products (except in the case of calcium), the expansion or creation of vast metal production industries, and the change-over of existing service station infrastructures to allowmore » electric vehicle servicing. The energy efficiency of a transportation system using aluminum was estimated using data on the current aluminum production industry. The total estimated cost of ownership and operation of an aluminum/air cell was 3.0--3.6 cents/km. The relative rarity of lithium would complicate its use. 6 tables.« less

Authors:
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
California Univ., Livermore (USA). Lawrence Livermore Lab.
Sponsoring Org.:
US Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA)
OSTI Identifier:
7084912
Report Number(s):
UCID-17558(Pt.1)
DOE Contract Number:  
W-7405-ENG-48
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
25 ENERGY STORAGE; ELECTRIC-POWERED VEHICLES; METAL-GAS BATTERIES; FEASIBILITY STUDIES; AIR; ALKALI METALS; ALKALINE EARTH METALS; ALUMINIUM; AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS; CADMIUM; CALCIUM; COMPARATIVE EVALUATIONS; COST; EFFICIENCY; LITHIUM; PERFORMANCE; REVIEWS; DISPERSIONS; DOCUMENT TYPES; ELECTRIC BATTERIES; ELECTROCHEMICAL CELLS; ELEMENTS; ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEMS; FLUIDS; GASES; METALS; MIXTURES; SOLUTIONS; VEHICLES; 250901* - Energy Storage- Batteries- Design & Development

Citation Formats

Cooper, J. F. High performance metal/air fuel cells. Part 1. General review. [Li, Al, Ca, Cd, Mg]. United States: N. p., 1977. Web. doi:10.2172/7084912.
Cooper, J. F. High performance metal/air fuel cells. Part 1. General review. [Li, Al, Ca, Cd, Mg]. United States. doi:10.2172/7084912.
Cooper, J. F. Mon . "High performance metal/air fuel cells. Part 1. General review. [Li, Al, Ca, Cd, Mg]". United States. doi:10.2172/7084912. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/7084912.
@article{osti_7084912,
title = {High performance metal/air fuel cells. Part 1. General review. [Li, Al, Ca, Cd, Mg]},
author = {Cooper, J. F.},
abstractNote = {Metal/air fuel cells are reviewed in terms of their potential application in electric vehicles. Attention is focused on those metals (light alkali and alkaline earth metals, and aluminum) which, in combination with oxygen, have theoretical energy densities (2--13 kWh/kg-metal) exceeding that of gasoline (utilized in automobiles at 2--3 kWh/kg). Lithium and aluminum have yielded 8- and 4 kWh/kg, respectively, in laboratory experimental cells. The slurry Zn/air system achieves 0.85 kWh/kg-Zn in prototype vehicle cells and is reviewed for comparison. Calcium can probably yield 1.8 kWh/kg-Ca, but its potential as a fuel has not yet been fully explored. The remaining metals appear to be unsuitable for use in aqueous electrolyte fuel cells. The discharge characteristics of lithium, aluminum, and (possibly) calcium/air cells indicate the potential for electric vehicles of the highway performance and minimum range (300 miles) of subcompact automobiles, rapid refueling for unlimited range extension, and the storage in the fuel cell of sufficient metal for ranges in excess of 1000 miles. Barriers to the concept are the economic necessity of recycling cell reaction products (except in the case of calcium), the expansion or creation of vast metal production industries, and the change-over of existing service station infrastructures to allow electric vehicle servicing. The energy efficiency of a transportation system using aluminum was estimated using data on the current aluminum production industry. The total estimated cost of ownership and operation of an aluminum/air cell was 3.0--3.6 cents/km. The relative rarity of lithium would complicate its use. 6 tables.},
doi = {10.2172/7084912},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Aug 15 00:00:00 EDT 1977},
month = {Mon Aug 15 00:00:00 EDT 1977}
}

Technical Report:

Save / Share: