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Title: On the ELF generation efficiency of the Tromsoe heater facility

Abstract

Using amplitude modulation derived from repetitive pulses of varying duty cycle with the Tromsoe heater facility, the authors determine the ratio of the heating to cooling time constants of ELF currents generated in the D-region. This ratio is found to decrease from 1.03 {plus minus} 0.07 at 510 Hz to 0.28 {plus minus} 0.03 at 6,010 kHz. These results, which were obtained using an effective radiated power of 240 MW, suggest that future heater facilities designed to optimize ELF radiation efficiency using the technique of beam painting' will have to operate at considerably higher power levels than the Tromsoe facility if any practical advantages are to be gained.

Authors:
 [1];  [2]
  1. (Dept. of Scientific and Industrial Research, Lower Hutt (New Zealand))
  2. (Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Aeronomie, Katlenburg-Lindau (Germany))
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
7049194
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Geophysical Research Letters (American Geophysical Union); (United States); Journal Volume: 18:11
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; IONOSPHERE; PLASMA HEATING; ALASKA; AMPLITUDES; COOLING; EFFICIENCY; LONG WAVE RADIATION; MATHEMATICAL MODELS; MODULATION; PULSES; DEVELOPED COUNTRIES; EARTH ATMOSPHERE; ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION; HEATING; NORTH AMERICA; PLANETARY IONOSPHERES; RADIATIONS; RADIOWAVE RADIATION; USA; 661320* - Auroral, Ionospheric, & Magnetospheric Phenomena- (1992-)

Citation Formats

Barr, R., and Stubbe, P. On the ELF generation efficiency of the Tromsoe heater facility. United States: N. p., 1991. Web. doi:10.1029/91GL02544.
Barr, R., & Stubbe, P. On the ELF generation efficiency of the Tromsoe heater facility. United States. doi:10.1029/91GL02544.
Barr, R., and Stubbe, P. 1991. "On the ELF generation efficiency of the Tromsoe heater facility". United States. doi:10.1029/91GL02544.
@article{osti_7049194,
title = {On the ELF generation efficiency of the Tromsoe heater facility},
author = {Barr, R. and Stubbe, P.},
abstractNote = {Using amplitude modulation derived from repetitive pulses of varying duty cycle with the Tromsoe heater facility, the authors determine the ratio of the heating to cooling time constants of ELF currents generated in the D-region. This ratio is found to decrease from 1.03 {plus minus} 0.07 at 510 Hz to 0.28 {plus minus} 0.03 at 6,010 kHz. These results, which were obtained using an effective radiated power of 240 MW, suggest that future heater facilities designed to optimize ELF radiation efficiency using the technique of beam painting' will have to operate at considerably higher power levels than the Tromsoe facility if any practical advantages are to be gained.},
doi = {10.1029/91GL02544},
journal = {Geophysical Research Letters (American Geophysical Union); (United States)},
number = ,
volume = 18:11,
place = {United States},
year = 1991,
month =
}
  • Direct comparisons have been made of the ionospheric ELF radiation produced by the new (1 GW ERP) and old (250 MW ERP) antennas of the Tromsoe heater system, but no significant differences in the ELF signal strength have been detected. This initially surprising result is shown to require a value of unity for the index relating the received ELF signal strength to HF power input to the antenna. A series of experiments performed solely to derive more accurate values for this power index provided values ranging from 0.74 to 0.97, dependent on the ELF frequencies generated. It has been suggestedmore » that ELF radiation from the normal Tromsoe heater facility should be limited by saturation effects, even when operating well below the maximum HF power density (3mW/m{sup 2} in the D-region). No evidence for such saturation effects has been found even at power densities greater than 10mW/m{sup 2}.« less
  • Observations of electromagnetic emissions on the HF heater subharmonic and several harmonic frequencies are presented. Often the second harmonic emissions show characteristic amplitude variation, frequency shift, and spectral broadening that clearly have their origin in ionospheric plasma processes. The strongest candidate is a combined parametric decay and Raman up-conversion processes. The subharmonic emission is believed to be evidence of absolute stimulated Raman scattering and/or two plasmon decay processes which have not been observed before in ionospheric heating experiments.
  • Field evaluations have proven that a new automatic-storage hot-water heater with higher service efficiency, greater durability, and fewer maintenance problems than conventional water heaters can be produced at a cost acceptable to the consumer, reports the Canadian Gas Research Institute. Saving 20-30% in energy costs, CGRI's water heater owes its high efficiency (82-85%) to 1) a greater heat-transfer surface area, 2 a baffle structure that reduces stack heat loss, 3 increased insulation, 4 a low-input pilot, and 5 and improved draft hood. A polarized magnesium anode improves the corrosion protection of the tank surfaces while a new water-circulation system reducesmore » precipitation.« less