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Title: Studies of nonequilibrium behavior in surfactant systems using videomicroscopy and diffusion path analysis

Abstract

A petroleum sulfonate system typical of those used in surfactant flooding of oil reservoirs was examined to determine salinity effects on nonequilibrium phenomena. Microemulsions and/or brine phases formed as intermediate layers at all salinities. Diffusion paths calculated for a model system match the experimental results with regard to the number and rate of formation of the intermediate phases. Contacting experiments were performed between an oil phase containing oleic acid and caustic brine solutions of varying salinity and pH. Interfacial turbulence and liquid crystal formation were commonplace. Spontaneous emulsification of water in the oil was observed when the surfactant was oil-soluble. Oil-in-water emulsions formed spontaneously when the surfactant was hydrophilic. Hydrocarbons were contacted with aqueous solutions of pure ethyoxylated alcohol surfactants. Enhanced solubilization of oil was seen at temperatures above the cloud point of the nonionic surfactant solutions. Intermediate liquid crystal and microemulsion layers typically formed near the phase inversion temperature, while conversion of oil into a water-in-oil microemulsions occurred at higher temperatures. Comparison of a pure ethoxylated alcohol system was also made to formulations having the same cloud point but containing a different ethoxylated alcohol and a lipophilic additive. Differences in nonequilibrium behavior were observed upon contacting with hydrocarbons duemore » to partitioning of additive into the oleic phase. Finally, contacting experiments were compared to calculated diffusion paths for a well-characterized oil-water-alcohol system. One observation was the formation of an interface across a three-phase region.« less

Authors:
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Rice Univ., Houston, TX (USA)
OSTI Identifier:
7040691
Resource Type:
Thesis/Dissertation
Resource Relation:
Other Information: Thesis (Ph. D.)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
02 PETROLEUM; DISPLACEMENT FLUIDS; PHASE STUDIES; ALCOHOLS; BRINES; COMPARATIVE EVALUATIONS; DIFFUSION; ENHANCED RECOVERY; HYDROCARBONS; INTERFACES; LIQUID CRYSTALS; MICROEMULSIONS; MICROSCOPY; OLEIC ACID; PETROLEUM; PETROLEUM SULFONATES; PH VALUE; SALINITY; SOLUBILITY; SURFACTANTS; TEMPERATURE DEPENDENCE; CARBOXYLIC ACIDS; COLLOIDS; CRYSTALS; DISPERSIONS; EMULSIONS; ENERGY SOURCES; ESTERS; FLUIDS; FOSSIL FUELS; FUELS; HYDROXY COMPOUNDS; LIQUIDS; MONOCARBOXYLIC ACIDS; ORGANIC ACIDS; ORGANIC COMPOUNDS; ORGANIC SULFUR COMPOUNDS; RECOVERY; SULFONATES; SULFONIC ACID ESTERS; 020300* - Petroleum- Drilling & Production

Citation Formats

Raney, K H. Studies of nonequilibrium behavior in surfactant systems using videomicroscopy and diffusion path analysis. United States: N. p., 1986. Web.
Raney, K H. Studies of nonequilibrium behavior in surfactant systems using videomicroscopy and diffusion path analysis. United States.
Raney, K H. 1986. "Studies of nonequilibrium behavior in surfactant systems using videomicroscopy and diffusion path analysis". United States.
@article{osti_7040691,
title = {Studies of nonequilibrium behavior in surfactant systems using videomicroscopy and diffusion path analysis},
author = {Raney, K H},
abstractNote = {A petroleum sulfonate system typical of those used in surfactant flooding of oil reservoirs was examined to determine salinity effects on nonequilibrium phenomena. Microemulsions and/or brine phases formed as intermediate layers at all salinities. Diffusion paths calculated for a model system match the experimental results with regard to the number and rate of formation of the intermediate phases. Contacting experiments were performed between an oil phase containing oleic acid and caustic brine solutions of varying salinity and pH. Interfacial turbulence and liquid crystal formation were commonplace. Spontaneous emulsification of water in the oil was observed when the surfactant was oil-soluble. Oil-in-water emulsions formed spontaneously when the surfactant was hydrophilic. Hydrocarbons were contacted with aqueous solutions of pure ethyoxylated alcohol surfactants. Enhanced solubilization of oil was seen at temperatures above the cloud point of the nonionic surfactant solutions. Intermediate liquid crystal and microemulsion layers typically formed near the phase inversion temperature, while conversion of oil into a water-in-oil microemulsions occurred at higher temperatures. Comparison of a pure ethoxylated alcohol system was also made to formulations having the same cloud point but containing a different ethoxylated alcohol and a lipophilic additive. Differences in nonequilibrium behavior were observed upon contacting with hydrocarbons due to partitioning of additive into the oleic phase. Finally, contacting experiments were compared to calculated diffusion paths for a well-characterized oil-water-alcohol system. One observation was the formation of an interface across a three-phase region.},
doi = {},
url = {https://www.osti.gov/biblio/7040691}, journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {1986},
month = {1}
}

Thesis/Dissertation:
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