skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Infectivity model verification studies, annual report - 1981

Abstract

The infectivity model has been used as one of the leading indicators of the potential health effects that may be associated with energy-related pollutants including nitrogen dioxide (NOs), ozone, and diesel exhaust. The original studies with the infectivity model and chronic exposure to NO2 reported by Ehrlich and Henry (1968) have not been replicated. This report details the work that has been performed in Texas Tech's laboratory thus far in initiating a chronic NO2 exposure study to replicate the original work by Ehrlich and Henry, and reviews the preliminary results. At the end of the first contract year, a functioning inhalation facility with a capability to expose animals continuously to low levels of NO2 is in place. One group of animals has been exposed to NO2 for eight months and challenged with Klebsiella pneumonia by inhalation. The results are similar to, but do not replicate entirely, those reported by Ehrlich and Henry. Two additional exposures have been initiated, and the animals will be challenged with the infectious agent in a bacterial infectivity chamber similar to that used by EPA.

Authors:
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock (USA). Dept. of Physiology
OSTI Identifier:
7028596
Report Number(s):
PB-82-194127
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
63 RADIATION, THERMAL, AND OTHER ENVIRON. POLLUTANT EFFECTS ON LIVING ORGS. AND BIOL. MAT.; 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; EXHAUST GASES; BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS; LABORATORY ANIMALS; IMMUNITY; NITROGEN DIOXIDE; OZONE; AEROSOLS; AIR POLLUTION; BACTERIA; CHRONIC EXPOSURE; EXPOSURE CHAMBERS; HEALTH HAZARDS; INFECTIOUS DISEASES; INHALATION; RESPIRATORY SYSTEM; SAMPLING; CHALCOGENIDES; COLLOIDS; DISEASES; DISPERSIONS; FLUIDS; GASEOUS WASTES; GASES; HAZARDS; INTAKE; MICROORGANISMS; NITROGEN COMPOUNDS; NITROGEN OXIDES; OXIDES; OXYGEN COMPOUNDS; POLLUTION; SOLS; WASTES 560305* -- Chemicals Metabolism & Toxicology-- Vertebrates-- (-1987); 500200 -- Environment, Atmospheric-- Chemicals Monitoring & Transport-- (-1989)

Citation Formats

McGrath, J.J.. Infectivity model verification studies, annual report - 1981. United States: N. p., 1982. Web.
McGrath, J.J.. Infectivity model verification studies, annual report - 1981. United States.
McGrath, J.J.. 1982. "Infectivity model verification studies, annual report - 1981". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_7028596,
title = {Infectivity model verification studies, annual report - 1981},
author = {McGrath, J.J.},
abstractNote = {The infectivity model has been used as one of the leading indicators of the potential health effects that may be associated with energy-related pollutants including nitrogen dioxide (NOs), ozone, and diesel exhaust. The original studies with the infectivity model and chronic exposure to NO2 reported by Ehrlich and Henry (1968) have not been replicated. This report details the work that has been performed in Texas Tech's laboratory thus far in initiating a chronic NO2 exposure study to replicate the original work by Ehrlich and Henry, and reviews the preliminary results. At the end of the first contract year, a functioning inhalation facility with a capability to expose animals continuously to low levels of NO2 is in place. One group of animals has been exposed to NO2 for eight months and challenged with Klebsiella pneumonia by inhalation. The results are similar to, but do not replicate entirely, those reported by Ehrlich and Henry. Two additional exposures have been initiated, and the animals will be challenged with the infectious agent in a bacterial infectivity chamber similar to that used by EPA.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 1982,
month = 1
}

Technical Report:
Other availability
Please see Document Availability for additional information on obtaining the full-text document. Library patrons may search WorldCat to identify libraries that may hold this item. Keep in mind that many technical reports are not cataloged in WorldCat.

Save / Share:
  • Characterization of SRC-II process streams and solids with respect to coke formation has been studied using methods developed specifically for this purpose, such as solvent fractionation, thermogravimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and scanning electron/optical microscopy. Different P-99 PDU procss streams were investigated including coal feedstock, feed slurry, dissolver effluent, atmospheric flash bottoms, vacuum tower bottoms, process solvent, recycle slurry, and coke-like materials from dissolver and hot separator as well as a Ft. Lewis dissolver preheater outlet sample. In the solvent fractionation study, solids from the dissolver contained very small amounts of toluene and pyridine solubles, (<2% wt). Over 98% ofmore » dissolver cokes were pyridine insolubles, while solids from the high pressure hot separator contained approx. 4% wt of toluene solubles and approx. 30% wt of pyridine solubles (or approx. 66% wt pyridine insolubles). Heavy solid products such as atmospheric flash bottoms (AFB) and vacuum tower bottoms (VTB) usually have about 45% wt pyridine insolubles. The amount of fixed carbon plus heavy volatile matter (FC + VM/sub H/) in certain streams appears to give a good correlation with coke formation in continuous pilot plant operations. There was a greater tendency to form coke with higher FC + VM/sub H/ values. Thermogravimetric analysis of SRC-II streams indicated that the amount of FC + VM/sub H/ decreased as the coal feedstock and feed slurry flowed from the preheater outlet to the dissolver effluent. However, high contents, 40 to 85% wt%, of FC +VM/sub H/ existed in solid samples, (e.g., AFB, VTB, dissolver, and hot separator cokes). The process solvent contained entirely light volatile matter.« less
  • The nucleonics calculations considered low activation material substitution in the STARFIRE design of SiC for the first wall, SiC for the coolant tubes and shell structure for the blanket, graphite as a reflector, Al, SiC and B/sub 4/C for a water cooled shield, and aluminum as structure and stabilizing conductor for the superconducting magnet. All materials included 1 appM iron as an impurity. Neutron multipliers were not needed. Nucleonics calculations gave neutron flux levels, radioactive material inventories, nuclear heating rates, decay heat rates and post-shutdown gamma dose levels. A breeding ratio of 1.09 tritons per neutron and a nuclear heatingmore » of 16.6 MeV per D-T reaction were obtained with the low activation blanket. Afterheat was reduced to a level where it is no longer a concern. The radioactivity and biological hazard potential (BHP) are reduced by a factor of one million at one day after shutdown. Dose rates of 20 mRem/h behind the reflector permit limited personnel access. Practically all the radioactivity problems are due to the 1 appM iron impurity. Thus further improvements are still possible.« less
  • Model compound reactions were studied to evaluate the effects of mass transfer, solvent type, solvent blending, hydrogen partial pressure, temperature, reactant concentration, additive loading and its preparation, etc. Naphthalene hydrogenation and benzothiophene hydrodesulfurization were investigated under the conditions comparable to commercial coal liquefaction and related processes. Both of these reaction systems were observed to be surface reaction controlled under the reaction conditions used in this work. Certain aromatic compounds were observed to cause a reduction in the reaction rates of naphthalene and benzothiophene. Single stage coal dissolution was investigated using tetralin as a hydrogen donor solvent and a commercial cobalt-molybdatemore » catalyst. A spinning basket system was developed to allow injection of the catalyst at a desired time in the reaction cycle. This catalyst injection technique proved to be reliable for the exploratory work done here. The degree of catalyst deactivation was rated by comparing the activities of the spent catalyst for model compound (naphthalene and cumene) reactivities relative to those of the fresh catalyst. No substantial reduction in deactivation was observed to result with delayed contacting of the catalyst with the coal-tetralin reaction mixture. The effect of reaction temperature on the initial rate of catalyst deactivation was also studied.« less
  • Hall current effects in the redistribution of plasma currents and possible stability enhancement in electron beams were explored in a range of pressure regimes. Improved e.m. algorithms and conductivity models were developed as part of the studies. Substantial effects were found below a low-pressure threshold, where nonlocal effects, non-Ohmic conductivity, and a highly non-Maxwellian distribution of plasma electron energies were all found to contribute significantly to the magnitude of Hall-current phenomena. Several e.m. field algorithms were developed for application to the nonlinear hose-displacement regime. An iterative approach to the solution of the modally expanded field equations was found to yieldmore » fast and accurate solutions.« less
  • Highlights of progress accomplished during 1982 are summarized. The purposes of this project are: to design a biological test farm for marine biomass of sufficient size to permit future experimental research on a two-crop system, to provide the necessary biological data to support the test farm design phase, and to initiate the work necessary to seed the farm. Separate abstracts have been prepared to describe each phase of the progress in these areas for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. The goal of the program is to produce methane from aquatic biomass at a reasonalbe cost. 77 figures, 29 tables.more » (DMC)« less