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Title: Environmental, health, and safety issues of sodium-sulfur batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles

Abstract

This report examines the shipping regulations that govern the shipment of dangerous goods. Since the elemental sodium contained in both sodium-sulfur and sodium-metal-chloride batteries is classified as a dangerous good, and is listed on both the national and international hazardous materials listings, both national and international regulatory processes are considered in this report The interrelationships as well as the differences between the two processes are highlighted. It is important to note that the transport regulatory processes examined in this report are reviewed within the context of assessing the necessary steps needed to provide for the domestic and international transport of sodium-beta batteries. The need for such an assessment was determined by the Shipping Sub-Working Group (SSWG) of the EV Battery Readiness Working Group (Working Group), created in 1990. The Working Group was created to examine the regulatory issues pertaining to in-vehicle safety, shipping, and recycling of sodium-sulfur batteries, each of which is addressed by a sub-working group. The mission of the SSWG is to establish basic provisions that will ensure the safe and efficient transport of sodium-beta batteries. To support that end, a proposal to the UN Committee of Experts was prepared by the SSWG, with the goal of obtainingmore » a proper shipping name and UN number for sodium-beta batteries and to establish the basic transport requirements for such batteries (see the appendix for the proposal as submitted). It is emphasized that because batteries are large articles containing elemental sodium and, in some cases, sulfur, there is no existing UN entry under which they can be classified and for which modal transport requirements, such as the use of packaging appropriate for such large articles, are provided for. It is for this reason that a specific UN entry for sodium-beta batteries is considered essential.« less

Authors:
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE; USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)
OSTI Identifier:
7021196
Report Number(s):
NREL/TP-463-4951
ON: DE92016443
DOE Contract Number:  
AC02-83CH10093
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
29 ENERGY PLANNING, POLICY AND ECONOMY; 33 ADVANCED PROPULSION SYSTEMS; SODIUM-SULFUR BATTERIES; TRANSPORT REGULATIONS; ELECTRIC-POWERED VEHICLES; HAZARDOUS MATERIALS; HYBRID ELECTRIC-POWERED VEHICLES; INTERNATIONAL REGULATIONS; SAFETY; SODIUM; TRANSPORT; UNITED NATIONS; ALKALI METALS; ELECTRIC BATTERIES; ELECTROCHEMICAL CELLS; ELEMENTS; INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS; MATERIALS; METAL-NONMETAL BATTERIES; METALS; REGULATIONS; VEHICLES; 290300* - Energy Planning & Policy- Environment, Health, & Safety; 330300 - Advanced Propulsion Systems- Electric-Powered Systems; 330400 - Advanced Propulsion Systems- Hybrid Systems

Citation Formats

Hammel, C J. Environmental, health, and safety issues of sodium-sulfur batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles. United States: N. p., 1992. Web. doi:10.2172/7021196.
Hammel, C J. Environmental, health, and safety issues of sodium-sulfur batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles. United States. https://doi.org/10.2172/7021196
Hammel, C J. 1992. "Environmental, health, and safety issues of sodium-sulfur batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles". United States. https://doi.org/10.2172/7021196. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/7021196.
@article{osti_7021196,
title = {Environmental, health, and safety issues of sodium-sulfur batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles},
author = {Hammel, C J},
abstractNote = {This report examines the shipping regulations that govern the shipment of dangerous goods. Since the elemental sodium contained in both sodium-sulfur and sodium-metal-chloride batteries is classified as a dangerous good, and is listed on both the national and international hazardous materials listings, both national and international regulatory processes are considered in this report The interrelationships as well as the differences between the two processes are highlighted. It is important to note that the transport regulatory processes examined in this report are reviewed within the context of assessing the necessary steps needed to provide for the domestic and international transport of sodium-beta batteries. The need for such an assessment was determined by the Shipping Sub-Working Group (SSWG) of the EV Battery Readiness Working Group (Working Group), created in 1990. The Working Group was created to examine the regulatory issues pertaining to in-vehicle safety, shipping, and recycling of sodium-sulfur batteries, each of which is addressed by a sub-working group. The mission of the SSWG is to establish basic provisions that will ensure the safe and efficient transport of sodium-beta batteries. To support that end, a proposal to the UN Committee of Experts was prepared by the SSWG, with the goal of obtaining a proper shipping name and UN number for sodium-beta batteries and to establish the basic transport requirements for such batteries (see the appendix for the proposal as submitted). It is emphasized that because batteries are large articles containing elemental sodium and, in some cases, sulfur, there is no existing UN entry under which they can be classified and for which modal transport requirements, such as the use of packaging appropriate for such large articles, are provided for. It is for this reason that a specific UN entry for sodium-beta batteries is considered essential.},
doi = {10.2172/7021196},
url = {https://www.osti.gov/biblio/7021196}, journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {1992},
month = {9}
}