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Title: Hardfacing with cobalt and nickel alloys

Abstract

The use of cobalt or nickel alloys for added wear resistance was initiated in the early 1900s with the development of the cobalt-chromium-tungsten family of alloys. The cobalt alloys were called the Stellite'' because of their bright, shiny, nontarnished appearance. Further development and characterization of this alloy system established its usage in unlubricated metal-to-metal contact or erosion by high-velocity fluid or solid particulate impingement. Initially, the alloys were used as solid castings but later were applied by welding to tougher or more ductile substrates, hence the birth of the hardfacing industry. Many of the original Stellite compositions are still in use, but many others, including the nickel and iron alloys, have been developed for special applications or for use by newer application procedures. Examining the microstructural features and wear properties of these families of hardfacing alloys can help in choosing the right alloy for the job. Various cobalt and nickel alloys, their available product forms and the corresponding hardfacing methods, are reviewed in this article.

Authors:
 [1];  [2]
  1. (Stoody Deloro Stellite, Inc., St. Louis, MO (United States))
  2. (Redman (James), Los Angles, CA (United States))
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
7019691
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Welding Journal (Miami); (United States); Journal Volume: 73:9
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; COBALT ALLOYS; MECHANICAL PROPERTIES; MICROSTRUCTURE; NICKEL ALLOYS; HARDNESS; WEAR RESISTANCE; ALLOYS 360102* -- Metals & Alloys-- Structure & Phase Studies; 360103 -- Metals & Alloys-- Mechanical Properties

Citation Formats

Wu, J.B.C., and Redman, J. Hardfacing with cobalt and nickel alloys. United States: N. p., 1994. Web.
Wu, J.B.C., & Redman, J. Hardfacing with cobalt and nickel alloys. United States.
Wu, J.B.C., and Redman, J. 1994. "Hardfacing with cobalt and nickel alloys". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_7019691,
title = {Hardfacing with cobalt and nickel alloys},
author = {Wu, J.B.C. and Redman, J.},
abstractNote = {The use of cobalt or nickel alloys for added wear resistance was initiated in the early 1900s with the development of the cobalt-chromium-tungsten family of alloys. The cobalt alloys were called the Stellite'' because of their bright, shiny, nontarnished appearance. Further development and characterization of this alloy system established its usage in unlubricated metal-to-metal contact or erosion by high-velocity fluid or solid particulate impingement. Initially, the alloys were used as solid castings but later were applied by welding to tougher or more ductile substrates, hence the birth of the hardfacing industry. Many of the original Stellite compositions are still in use, but many others, including the nickel and iron alloys, have been developed for special applications or for use by newer application procedures. Examining the microstructural features and wear properties of these families of hardfacing alloys can help in choosing the right alloy for the job. Various cobalt and nickel alloys, their available product forms and the corresponding hardfacing methods, are reviewed in this article.},
doi = {},
journal = {Welding Journal (Miami); (United States)},
number = ,
volume = 73:9,
place = {United States},
year = 1994,
month = 9
}
  • Composition and properties of Stellite grades 6, l2, and 1 are presented. Deposition of the alloys is discussed as to technique and feasibility. Problems of hardfacing are discussed in relation to choice of base metal and welding stresses. Industrial applications of the alloys are presented. (C.J.G.)
  • The rolling texture of heavily rolled pure Ni has been found to be similar to the rolling texture of deformed pure Cu. The textures of Ni-Fe alloys with up to 40% Fe, are similar among themselves and also to that of pure Ni. The Ni-Co alloys with up to 30% Co show pure metal-type rolling texture, while the Ni-60% Co alloy shows alloy-type texture. The rolling texture of the Ni-40% Co alloy lies in between these two extremes. The similarity of the deformation textures of pure Ni and Ni-Fe alloys can be explained due to only a marginal variation ofmore » the stacking-fault energy of Ni as a function of Fe-content. The texture transition in the Ni-Co alloys has been attributed to the additional effect of the incidence of twinning caused by the sharp decrease of stacking fault energy of Ni by Co-addition.« less
  • Changes in hardness, electrical conductivity, and mechanical properties occurring during aging of martensitic alloys, Fe--15% Ni--10% W-(0 to 20)% Co were studied. The cobalt was shown to contribute to strengthening of the maraging Fe-Ni--Co--W alloys upon heating; this reaction is related to the amount of W that separates from the solid solution upon aging. In the Fe--Ni-Co--W system a strength of about 270 kg/mm/sup 2/ is achieved with satisfactory indexes of plasticity. (tr-auth)