skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: In situ groundwater remediation using air sparging, vapor extraction and bioventing

Abstract

Over 60 years of refining operations have resulted in petroleum hydrocarbon contamination of soil and groundwater at the 74-acre former Golden Eagle Refinery in Carson, California. Successful negotiations with the California Regional Water Quality Control Board (RWQCB)-Los Angeles Region, and the California Department of Toxic Substances Control (DTSC) resulted in the use of a phased approach, separating the soil and groundwater remediation activities. Based on the findings of site assessments conducted to define and characterize the soil and groundwater contamination at the site, remediation of the soil was initiated first. By obtaining agency approval on the soil cleanup, the site could proceed with development during the groundwater remediation activities. Prior to groundwater remediation, an air sparging pilot test was performed at the site on a highly heterogeneous site consisting of mostly low permeability soils in southern California. This paper how the pilot test was performed, the test results and the accuracy of the results when scaled up to the full operating system.

Authors:
;  [1];  [2]
  1. CET Environmental Services, Inc., Tustin, CA (United States)
  2. LASMO Ltd., Houston, TX (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
69846
Report Number(s):
CONF-941189-
ISBN 1-56590-016-2; TRN: IM9529%%234
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: SUPERFUND XV: 15th environmental conference and exhibition for the hazardous materials/hazardous waste management industry, Washington, DC (United States), 29 Nov - 1 Dec 1994; Other Information: PBD: 1994; Related Information: Is Part Of Superfund XV conference proceedings. Volume 2; PB: 877 p.
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
02 PETROLEUM; CALIFORNIA; REMEDIAL ACTION; PETROLEUM REFINERIES; SOILS; GROUND WATER; HYDROCARBONS; WASTE PROCESSING; DECONTAMINATION; IN-SITU PROCESSING; TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT; BIODEGRADATION

Citation Formats

Stumpf, P., Cotton, D.W., and Bayliss, R. In situ groundwater remediation using air sparging, vapor extraction and bioventing. United States: N. p., 1994. Web.
Stumpf, P., Cotton, D.W., & Bayliss, R. In situ groundwater remediation using air sparging, vapor extraction and bioventing. United States.
Stumpf, P., Cotton, D.W., and Bayliss, R. Sat . "In situ groundwater remediation using air sparging, vapor extraction and bioventing". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_69846,
title = {In situ groundwater remediation using air sparging, vapor extraction and bioventing},
author = {Stumpf, P. and Cotton, D.W. and Bayliss, R.},
abstractNote = {Over 60 years of refining operations have resulted in petroleum hydrocarbon contamination of soil and groundwater at the 74-acre former Golden Eagle Refinery in Carson, California. Successful negotiations with the California Regional Water Quality Control Board (RWQCB)-Los Angeles Region, and the California Department of Toxic Substances Control (DTSC) resulted in the use of a phased approach, separating the soil and groundwater remediation activities. Based on the findings of site assessments conducted to define and characterize the soil and groundwater contamination at the site, remediation of the soil was initiated first. By obtaining agency approval on the soil cleanup, the site could proceed with development during the groundwater remediation activities. Prior to groundwater remediation, an air sparging pilot test was performed at the site on a highly heterogeneous site consisting of mostly low permeability soils in southern California. This paper how the pilot test was performed, the test results and the accuracy of the results when scaled up to the full operating system.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Sat Dec 31 00:00:00 EST 1994},
month = {Sat Dec 31 00:00:00 EST 1994}
}

Conference:
Other availability
Please see Document Availability for additional information on obtaining the full-text document. Library patrons may search WorldCat to identify libraries that hold this conference proceeding.

Save / Share:
  • Air sparging is an innovative technology in which air is injected into the saturated zone so that the VOCs in the liquid phase are partitioned to the vapor phase and the VOC-laden air migrates upward into the unsaturated zone where it is extracted using conventional SVE. To estimate the length of time necessary to remediate contaminated groundwater in a source area, the design engineer must be able to estimate the VOC extraction rate from air sparging. This information can also be used to size the vacuum blower for the SVE system, and estimate the VOC loading of the vapor treatmentmore » system. This paper develops and evaluates a proposed and simple mathematical model for the removal of VOCs from groundwater that is being remediated by air sparging. Two case studies will be presented to illustrate the application of the technologies. The first case involves the removal of solvents from soil and ground water in Michigan. The second case involves the removal of gasoline from soil and ground water in New Jersey.« less
  • This volume is part of a ten volume set of papers derived from the Third International In Situ and On-Site Bioreclamation Symposium which was held in San Diego, California, in April 1995. The purpose of the conference was to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on bioremediation. This volume focuses on the use of air sparging, bioventing, and other aeration processes to remediate hydrocarbon-contaminated soils and groundwater. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.
  • When the appropriate site conditions exist, air sparging, vapor extraction and bioventing can be combined to form a technically and cost effective scenario to remediate petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soils. A former Gulf Terminal in Upstate New York meets these conditions. The site geology consists of highly permeable sands and gravels with only trace amounts of silt. The groundwater table is approximately 15 feet below the ground surface which provides an ideal vadose zone. The site contaminants are petroleum fuel residuals primarily from the former storage and transfer of gasoline distillates. A series of pilot studies were conducted at the sitemore » in July, August, and September of 1994 to determine the validity of the proposed technologies. Based on the pilot study results, it was determined that the combined technologies of soil vapor extraction, air sparging, and bioventing could be used to effectively remediate the site. Using the pilot study data as the design basis, Parsons ES designed and installed a full-scale remediation system to address both the vadose and phreatic zone contaminants. The SVE portion of the system was placed into operation in April of 1995, and to date has removed over 12,000 pounds of petroleum hydrocarbons, including over 30 pounds of benzene. The overall costs for remediating the site including pilot studies, detailed design, system installation, and one year of operation are estimated at $5.60 per cubic yard for the estimated 35,000 cubic yards of contaminated soil at the site. The pilot study, full-scale operational results, and projected remediation costs are the focus of this paper.« less
  • Air sparging column experiments were conducted using coarse sand and fine sand subjected to both continuous and pulsed air injection in order to determine the effectiveness of pulsed air injection when compared to continuous air injection. For this study, the soil samples were saturated with a known concentration of benzene solution. Compressed air was then injected into the soil column under pre-selected pressure and flow rates. Three injection regimes were used: continuous air injection, pulsed air injection with a period of two hours, and pulsed air injection with a period of six hours. During testing, benzene concentration profiles were measuredmore » in the soil at different time intervals by sampling pore water from sampling ports and analyzing using gas chromatography (GC). This study demonstrated that pulsed air injection did not offer any appreciable advantages over continuous injection in tests using the coarse sand; however, pulsed air injection led to substantial reductions in system operating time for tests performed in fine sand. Therefore, pulsed air injection systems may lead to more efficient and fiscally attractive remediation programs for the application of in-situ air sparging to finer sandy soils.« less
  • Soil and groundwater contaminated with jet fuel at Terminal One of the JFK International Airport in New York have been remediated using dual phase extraction (DPE) and bioventing. Two areas were remediated using 51 DPE wells and 20 air sparging/air injection wells. The total area remediated by the DPE wells is estimated to be 4.8 acres. Groundwater was extracted to recover nonaqueous phase and aqueous phase jet fuel from the shallow aquifer and treated above ground by the following processes; oil/water separation, iron-oxidation, flocculation, sedimentation, filtration, air stripping and liquid-phase granular activated carbon (LPGAC) adsorption. The extracted vapors were treatedmore » by vapor-phase granular activated carbon (VPGAC) adsorption in one area, and catalytic oxidation and VPGAC adsorption in another area. After 6 months of remediation, approximately 5,490 lbs. of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were removed by soil vapor extraction (SVE), 109,650 lbs. of petroleum hydrocarbons were removed from the extracted groundwater, and 60,550 lbs. of petroleum hydrocarbons were biologically oxidized by subsurface microorganisms. Of these three mechanisms, the rate of petroleum hydrocarbon removal was the highest for biological oxidation in one area and by groundwater extraction in another area.« less