skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Synthesis of a high-yield activated carbon by air gasification of macadamia nut shell charcoal

Abstract

Macadamia nut shell charcoal was heated in an inert environment to temperatures above 1000 K (carbonized), reacted with oxygen (Po{sub 2} = 2.68--11.3 kPa) at temperatures between 525 and 586 K (oxygenated), and heated again in an inert environment to temperatures above 1000 K (activated) to produce an activated carbon. Carbons produced by this process possess surface areas and iodine numbers in the range of 400--550. Overall yields of these carbons (based on the dry, raw macadamia nut shell feed) ranged from 24 to 30 wt %. Under the conditions employed in this work, the rates of chemisorption and gasification were not mass transfer limited. Initially, the gasification reaction was first-order with respect to oxygen concentration but became independent of oxygen concentration as the surface sites of the carbon became saturated with oxygen.

Authors:
;  [1]
  1. Univ. of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
697172
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research; Journal Volume: 38; Journal Issue: 9; Other Information: PBD: Sep 1999
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
09 BIOMASS FUELS; ACTIVATED CARBON; SYNTHESIS; NUTS; AGRICULTURAL WASTES; CARBONIZATION; GASIFICATION; SURFACE AREA

Citation Formats

Dai, X., and Antal, M.J. Jr.. Synthesis of a high-yield activated carbon by air gasification of macadamia nut shell charcoal. United States: N. p., 1999. Web. doi:10.1021/ie990063u.
Dai, X., & Antal, M.J. Jr.. Synthesis of a high-yield activated carbon by air gasification of macadamia nut shell charcoal. United States. doi:10.1021/ie990063u.
Dai, X., and Antal, M.J. Jr.. Wed . "Synthesis of a high-yield activated carbon by air gasification of macadamia nut shell charcoal". United States. doi:10.1021/ie990063u.
@article{osti_697172,
title = {Synthesis of a high-yield activated carbon by air gasification of macadamia nut shell charcoal},
author = {Dai, X. and Antal, M.J. Jr.},
abstractNote = {Macadamia nut shell charcoal was heated in an inert environment to temperatures above 1000 K (carbonized), reacted with oxygen (Po{sub 2} = 2.68--11.3 kPa) at temperatures between 525 and 586 K (oxygenated), and heated again in an inert environment to temperatures above 1000 K (activated) to produce an activated carbon. Carbons produced by this process possess surface areas and iodine numbers in the range of 400--550. Overall yields of these carbons (based on the dry, raw macadamia nut shell feed) ranged from 24 to 30 wt %. Under the conditions employed in this work, the rates of chemisorption and gasification were not mass transfer limited. Initially, the gasification reaction was first-order with respect to oxygen concentration but became independent of oxygen concentration as the surface sites of the carbon became saturated with oxygen.},
doi = {10.1021/ie990063u},
journal = {Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research},
number = 9,
volume = 38,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Sep 01 00:00:00 EDT 1999},
month = {Wed Sep 01 00:00:00 EDT 1999}
}