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Title: High-temperature sand consolidation

Abstract

A sand consolidation system has been developed that is stable to wellbore temperatures of 700/sup 0/F (371/sup 0/C). Two improvements in technique have contributed to this development. First, a controlled quantity of catalyst is absorbed on the sand. Consequently, consolidation occurs only on or very near the sand grains, resulting in a high-permeability consolidation. Second, the reaction is driven to completion by avoiding, insofar as possible, the adverse effect of water. The resin used for the consolidation is a very viscous derivative of furfuryl alcohol that requires a diluent to make it injectable. The diulent used to reduce viscosity is a hydrolyzable ester. The diluted fluid, which is sill more viscous than water, displaces much of the water present in the pore space. During the catalyzed consolidation, water produced by the polymerization is removed by reaction with the diluent (hydrolysis of the ester). The high-molecular-weight polymeric consolidation is better able to resist the high temperatures encountered in steam-displacement producing wells. Adaptation of the technology has been made so that the process can also be used in low-temperature wells. Because of the catalysis method, long shelf life is guaranteed for the consolidating formation.

Authors:
; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Texaco Inc., Houston, TX (US)
OSTI Identifier:
6944875
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: SPE (Society of Petroleum Engineers) Product. Eng.; (United States); Journal Volume: 3:2
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
02 PETROLEUM; 03 NATURAL GAS; NATURAL GAS WELLS; SAND CONSOLIDATION; OIL WELLS; ADSORBENTS; ADSORPTION; CATALYSTS; ESTERS; FURFURAL; HIGH TEMPERATURE; SANDSTONES; WELL COMPLETION; WORKING FLUIDS; ALDEHYDES; FLUIDS; FURANS; HETEROCYCLIC COMPOUNDS; ORGANIC COMPOUNDS; ORGANIC OXYGEN COMPOUNDS; ROCKS; SEDIMENTARY ROCKS; SORPTION; WELLS 020300* -- Petroleum-- Drilling & Production; 030300 -- Natural Gas-- Drilling, Production, & Processing

Citation Formats

Friedman, R.H., Suries, B.W., and Kleke, D.E.. High-temperature sand consolidation. United States: N. p., 1987. Web.
Friedman, R.H., Suries, B.W., & Kleke, D.E.. High-temperature sand consolidation. United States.
Friedman, R.H., Suries, B.W., and Kleke, D.E.. 1987. "High-temperature sand consolidation". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_6944875,
title = {High-temperature sand consolidation},
author = {Friedman, R.H. and Suries, B.W. and Kleke, D.E.},
abstractNote = {A sand consolidation system has been developed that is stable to wellbore temperatures of 700/sup 0/F (371/sup 0/C). Two improvements in technique have contributed to this development. First, a controlled quantity of catalyst is absorbed on the sand. Consequently, consolidation occurs only on or very near the sand grains, resulting in a high-permeability consolidation. Second, the reaction is driven to completion by avoiding, insofar as possible, the adverse effect of water. The resin used for the consolidation is a very viscous derivative of furfuryl alcohol that requires a diluent to make it injectable. The diulent used to reduce viscosity is a hydrolyzable ester. The diluted fluid, which is sill more viscous than water, displaces much of the water present in the pore space. During the catalyzed consolidation, water produced by the polymerization is removed by reaction with the diluent (hydrolysis of the ester). The high-molecular-weight polymeric consolidation is better able to resist the high temperatures encountered in steam-displacement producing wells. Adaptation of the technology has been made so that the process can also be used in low-temperature wells. Because of the catalysis method, long shelf life is guaranteed for the consolidating formation.},
doi = {},
journal = {SPE (Society of Petroleum Engineers) Product. Eng.; (United States)},
number = ,
volume = 3:2,
place = {United States},
year = 1987,
month = 5
}
  • A review of the technology and some tips for success in the use of sand consolidation are presented. The technical subjects discussed include consolidation methods, consolidating older wells, recent developments, and cost. Some predictions for the future are also considered. The following tips are suggested: consolidate immediately before producing any reservoir fluids; avoid shale; always perforate through clean fluid and keep it clean; perforate only short intervals; stay below formation fracturing pressure; open all perforations during the pre-flush operation; complete the well above the oil-water contact; and avoid ''dirty'' sands. As a result of the advancing technology, sand consolidation methodsmore » are being applied to wells that would have been abandoned a few years ago. More improvements are expected in the near future as a result of experience.« less
  • Warm air coking is a completion technique that has been used to prevent the production of sand into wells producing from unconsolidated sand formation. It is accomplished by injection of heated air into the formation around a producing well bore until the crude oil becomes oxidized into an insoluble coke or resin which binds the sand grains together. In addition to stabilizing the loose sand, the heat air stimulates oil production. The results of several field tests where loose sand reservoirs saturated with viscous crude oils have been consolidated in the producing well bore are presented and discussed. Illustrations ofmore » the stimulated producing rates and a description of the equipment used in performing the sand consolidation in a producing well bore are presented. Based on the results of the field tests, the details of a typical completion and the potential of the technique as a completion tool are analyzed.« less
  • Four commercial in-situ sand-consolidation resin systems and one resin-sandpack system were tested for durability in hot (160/sup 0/F (71.1/sup 0/C)) flowing brine for up to 28 months, and in as much as 30 million PV brine. Brine was selected as the test fluid since it is considered to be more damaging than oil to the stability of resin consolidated sand. Two epoxy and two furan systems were investigated. Other commercial consolidation techniques-e.g., involving phenol formaldehyde and phenolic furan resins described in the literature-have been recognized as effective sand-stabilization products; however, some limitations had to be placed on the scope ofmore » the study because of equipment and time limitations. Perhaps these techniques will be the subject of future investigations. Note that all processes evaluated in this investigation used silane coupling agents contained in the resinous materials. These agents increase the stability of sands consolidated by organic polymers. The overflush-catalyzed furan resin (System A) and the internally catalyzed epoxy resin (System D) demonstrated greater stability under the specific test conditions employed. System A retained higher strength during the first 15 million PV. Thereafter, System D appeared to be better. System A exhibited the highest initial permeability, and, after 5 million PV, Systems A, B, and D were about equal in permeability. From that point, the permeability of System A slowly increased, while decreasing for Systems B and D. The epoxy-resin sandpack (40- to 60-mesh sand) showed little change in compressive strength after exposure to more than 30 million PV of hot, flowing brine.« less