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Title: Pillared montmorillonites: Cesium-selective ion-exchange materials

Abstract

A zirconia-pillared and an alumina-pillared montmorillonite clay were found to exhibit high K{sub d}S for trace levels of cesium (2.5 ppb) in the presence of high concentrations of Ca{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+}, and Na{sup +} ions with distribution coefficients (K{sub d}S) for {sup 137}Cs exceeding 1 {times} 10{sup 5} mL/g over a wide range of competing ion concentrations. An excess of K{sup +} ions, however, caused a dramatic reduction in the Cs K{sub d}S for both of the materials. These results were in contrast to the parent montmorillonite which exhibited far lower K{sub d}S for {sup 137}Cs, particularly in the presence of high concentrations of Mg{sup 2+} and Ca{sup 2+}. Batch tests in simulated groundwaters showed that both pillared clays efficiently removed {sup 137}Cs from solution, with the best K{sub d}S being approximately 8.5 {times} 10{sup 5} mL/g in a potassium-free groundwater. The materials performed less well in a groundwater with a high potassium concentration, but still gave K{sub d}S similar to commercially available zeolites. The rate of {sup 137}Cs uptake was found to be rapid with both the alumina- and zirconia-pillared clays extracting >90% of the {sup 137}Cs from a 0.1 M NaNO{sub 3} solution within 5 minutes.

Authors:
; ;  [1]
  1. Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemistry
Publication Date:
Sponsoring Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)
OSTI Identifier:
691481
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Separation Science and Technology
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 34; Journal Issue: 12; Other Information: PBD: Sep 1999
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; 05 NUCLEAR FUELS; MONTMORILLONITE; SORPTIVE PROPERTIES; CESIUM; ION EXCHANGE; ZIRCONIUM OXIDES; ALUMINIUM OXIDES; RADIOACTIVE WASTE PROCESSING; GROUND WATER; REMEDIAL ACTION

Citation Formats

Sylvester, P., Clearfield, A., and Diaz, R.J. Pillared montmorillonites: Cesium-selective ion-exchange materials. United States: N. p., 1999. Web. doi:10.1081/SS-100100773.
Sylvester, P., Clearfield, A., & Diaz, R.J. Pillared montmorillonites: Cesium-selective ion-exchange materials. United States. doi:10.1081/SS-100100773.
Sylvester, P., Clearfield, A., and Diaz, R.J. Wed . "Pillared montmorillonites: Cesium-selective ion-exchange materials". United States. doi:10.1081/SS-100100773.
@article{osti_691481,
title = {Pillared montmorillonites: Cesium-selective ion-exchange materials},
author = {Sylvester, P. and Clearfield, A. and Diaz, R.J.},
abstractNote = {A zirconia-pillared and an alumina-pillared montmorillonite clay were found to exhibit high K{sub d}S for trace levels of cesium (2.5 ppb) in the presence of high concentrations of Ca{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+}, and Na{sup +} ions with distribution coefficients (K{sub d}S) for {sup 137}Cs exceeding 1 {times} 10{sup 5} mL/g over a wide range of competing ion concentrations. An excess of K{sup +} ions, however, caused a dramatic reduction in the Cs K{sub d}S for both of the materials. These results were in contrast to the parent montmorillonite which exhibited far lower K{sub d}S for {sup 137}Cs, particularly in the presence of high concentrations of Mg{sup 2+} and Ca{sup 2+}. Batch tests in simulated groundwaters showed that both pillared clays efficiently removed {sup 137}Cs from solution, with the best K{sub d}S being approximately 8.5 {times} 10{sup 5} mL/g in a potassium-free groundwater. The materials performed less well in a groundwater with a high potassium concentration, but still gave K{sub d}S similar to commercially available zeolites. The rate of {sup 137}Cs uptake was found to be rapid with both the alumina- and zirconia-pillared clays extracting >90% of the {sup 137}Cs from a 0.1 M NaNO{sub 3} solution within 5 minutes.},
doi = {10.1081/SS-100100773},
journal = {Separation Science and Technology},
number = 12,
volume = 34,
place = {United States},
year = {1999},
month = {9}
}