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Title: Proliferation and the former Soviet Union

Abstract

The report examines the whole range of consequences for proliferation of weapons of mass destruction of the Soviet Union's breakup and describes how U.S. assistance may reduce specific proliferation risks in the former Soviet Union.

Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Office of Technology Assessment (U.S. Congress), Washington, DC (United States)
OSTI Identifier:
6899812
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 6899812
Report Number(s):
PB-94-209897/XAB; OTA-ISS--605
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Resource Relation:
Other Information: Also available from Supt. of Docs
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
98 NUCLEAR DISARMAMENT, SAFEGUARDS, AND PHYSICAL PROTECTION; BIOLOGICAL WARFARE AGENTS; PROLIFERATION; CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS; NUCLEAR WEAPONS; RUSSIAN FEDERATION; ARMS CONTROL; RISK ASSESSMENT; EASTERN EUROPE; EUROPE; WEAPONS 350200* -- Arms Control-- Proliferation-- (1987-)

Citation Formats

Not Available. Proliferation and the former Soviet Union. United States: N. p., 1994. Web.
Not Available. Proliferation and the former Soviet Union. United States.
Not Available. Thu . "Proliferation and the former Soviet Union". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_6899812,
title = {Proliferation and the former Soviet Union},
author = {Not Available},
abstractNote = {The report examines the whole range of consequences for proliferation of weapons of mass destruction of the Soviet Union's breakup and describes how U.S. assistance may reduce specific proliferation risks in the former Soviet Union.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu Sep 01 00:00:00 EDT 1994},
month = {Thu Sep 01 00:00:00 EDT 1994}
}

Technical Report:
Other availability
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  • This paper examines the United States` role in stemming nuclear proliferation from the states of the Former Soviet Union. Proliferation from the FSU is a critical danger to the world. Because of the breakdown of many of the security structures within the FSU which formerly ensured the safety of their weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and related material, the danger is very real. The implementation of the START treaties has also generated a great deal of excess fissile material. Because of the economic conditions in the FSU, there is rising crime concerning the sale and distribution of this material. Finally,more » this paper examines the U.S. role in decreasing the danger of nuclear catastrophe caused by the lack of control. The primary force used in this effort is the Cooperative Threat Reduction Act (CTR) - better know as the Nunn-Lugar Program - which was initiated in 1991 immediately after the failed coup attempt in Moscow. The paper examines in broad scope the types of efforts that CTR supports and gives examples of how that money is being spent. The paper takes the position that the CTR is extremely important to the vital interests of the United States. Recommendations are then given to enhance this vital program.« less
  • Until the late 80`s information on Soviet underground nuclear explosions, let alone seismic recording on Soviet soil, were not generally available to the seismological community. The dramatic changes since then have resulted in access to a wide variety of seismic data from Soviet explosions. In this report the author presents a data set, unique to the field of seismic verification. The data includes a large number of waveforms from in-country seismological station Borovoye for the Soviet peaceful nuclear explosions with announced yields and origin times, some with physical and mechanical conditions at the test site. The waveforms were recorded bymore » digital station of different types. In this report the author has summarized and reviewed information on 122 explosions, and 55 waveforms in this data set, which contains recordings obtained in the course of more than 15 years. As the characteristics of recording instruments were changing during this period of time available information on instrument calibrations is also described and reviewed. The author also has attempted to describe the observed peculiarities of P-wave by using a simple source function and magnitude correction which take in attention such parameters as the velocity of longitudinal wave, density, moisture, gas content and depth of explosion. More detail analysis was conducted for the explosions conducted in salt as there is representative sample and they were observed on local distances.« less
  • Agricultural soils act as both a source and a sink for atmospheric carbon. Since the onset of cultivation, the 211.5 million ha of agricultural soils in the former Soviet Union (FSU) have lost 10.2 Gt of carbon. No-till management represents a promising option to increase the amount of carbon sequestered in the agricultural soil of the FSU. No-till management reduces erosion and sequesters additional carbon in the soil by lowering the soil temperature and raising soil moisture. To determine the carbon sequestered under no-till management, a data base containing precultivation estimates of soil carbon for the seven major classes ofmore » soil found in the agricultural areas of the FSU was used to establish an equilibrium carbon content for each soil. Other published data provided a method to quantify the change in soil carbon brought about by converting to no-till management. Soils suitable for no-till management were analyzed and estimates of changes in carbon storage were made. No-till management is not suitable in areas where crop production is limited by cold, wet soils. (Copyright (c) 1993 Elsevier Science Publishers B.V.)« less
  • The report assesses the state of the art in several areas of climate research in the former Soviet Union. This assessment was performed by a group of six internationally recognized US experts in related fields. The areas chosen for review are: large-scale circulation processes in the atmosphere and oceans; atmospheric radiative processes; cloud formation processes; climate effects of natural atmospheric disturbances; and the carbon cycle, paleoclimates, and general circulation model validation. The study found an active research community in each of the above areas.
  • The former Soviet Union (FSU) was the largest country in the world. It occupied one-sixth of the land surface of the Earth. An understanding of the pools and fluxes of biogenic carbon in the FSU is essential to the development of international strategies aimed at mitigation of the negative impacts of global climate change. The vegetation of the FSU includes the following principal types: forest, woodland, shrubland, grassland, tundra, desert, peatlands, and cultivated land. Arctic deserts and tundra formations are found in the northern part; deserts and semi-deserts are found in the southern part. The territory is represented by amore » variety of climate conditions. The major part of the FSU territory is in the temperate climatic zone which changes from arctic and subarctic in the North to subtropical and desert in the South. The carbon pools and fluxes for all the ecoregions were summed to arrive at an initial estimate of the pools and fluxes of biogenic carbon for 95% of the FSU. (Copyright (c) 1993 Kluwer Academic Publishers.)« less