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Title: Technical support to the Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) demonstration projects: assessment of current research and development

Abstract

A program to demonstrate Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) technology has been initiated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in partnership with two industrial groups. Project management responsibility has been assigned to the Oak Ridge Operations Office (ORO) of DOE. ORO requested that the Oak Ridge National Laboratory assess current research and development (R and D) activities and develop recommendations for those activities that might contribute to successful completion of the SRC demonstration plant projects. The objectives of this final report are to discuss in detail the problem areas in SRC; to discuss the current and planned R and D investigations relevant to the problems identified; and to suggest appropriate R and D activities in support of designs for the SRC demonstration plants. Four types of R and D activities are suggested: continuation of present and planned activities; coordination of activities and results, present and proposed; extension/redirection of activities not involving major equipment purchase or modifications; and new activities. Important examples of the first type of activity include continuation of fired heater, slurry rheology, and slurry mixing studies at Ft. Lewis. Among the second type of activity, coordination of data acquisition and interpretation is recommended in the areas of heatmore » transfer, vapor/liquid equilibria, and physical properties. Principal examples of recommendations for extension/redirection include screening studies at laboratory scale on the use of carbonaceous precoat (e.g., anthracite) infiltration, and 15- to 30-day continuous tests of the Texaco gasifier at the Texaco Montebello facility (using SRC residues).« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)
OSTI Identifier:
6875749
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 6875749
Report Number(s):
ORNL/TM-6952
DOE Contract Number:
W-7405-ENG-26
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT; COAL LIQUIDS; FILTRATION; PHYSICAL PROPERTIES; FUEL SLURRIES; MIXING; RHEOLOGY; RESIDUES; GASIFICATION; SRC PROCESS; RECOMMENDATIONS; TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT; SRC-II PROCESS; COAL LIQUEFACTION; DEMONSTRATION PLANTS; HEAT TRANSFER; PUMPS; SEPARATION PROCESSES; TEXACO GASIFICATION PROCESS; VALVES; COAL GASIFICATION; CONTROL EQUIPMENT; DISPERSIONS; ENERGY TRANSFER; EQUIPMENT; FLOW REGULATORS; FLUIDS; FUELS; LIQUEFACTION; LIQUIDS; MIXTURES; SLURRIES; SUSPENSIONS; THERMOCHEMICAL PROCESSES 010405* -- Coal, Lignite, & Peat-- Hydrogenation & Liquefaction; 010600 -- Coal, Lignite, & Peat-- Properties & Composition

Citation Formats

Edwards, M.S., Rodgers, B.R., Brown, C.H., Carlson, P.K., Gambill, W.R., Gilliam, T.M., Holmes, J.M., Krishnan, R.P., and Parsly, L.F. Technical support to the Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) demonstration projects: assessment of current research and development. United States: N. p., 1980. Web. doi:10.2172/6875749.
Edwards, M.S., Rodgers, B.R., Brown, C.H., Carlson, P.K., Gambill, W.R., Gilliam, T.M., Holmes, J.M., Krishnan, R.P., & Parsly, L.F. Technical support to the Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) demonstration projects: assessment of current research and development. United States. doi:10.2172/6875749.
Edwards, M.S., Rodgers, B.R., Brown, C.H., Carlson, P.K., Gambill, W.R., Gilliam, T.M., Holmes, J.M., Krishnan, R.P., and Parsly, L.F. Mon . "Technical support to the Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) demonstration projects: assessment of current research and development". United States. doi:10.2172/6875749. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/6875749.
@article{osti_6875749,
title = {Technical support to the Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) demonstration projects: assessment of current research and development},
author = {Edwards, M.S. and Rodgers, B.R. and Brown, C.H. and Carlson, P.K. and Gambill, W.R. and Gilliam, T.M. and Holmes, J.M. and Krishnan, R.P. and Parsly, L.F.},
abstractNote = {A program to demonstrate Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) technology has been initiated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in partnership with two industrial groups. Project management responsibility has been assigned to the Oak Ridge Operations Office (ORO) of DOE. ORO requested that the Oak Ridge National Laboratory assess current research and development (R and D) activities and develop recommendations for those activities that might contribute to successful completion of the SRC demonstration plant projects. The objectives of this final report are to discuss in detail the problem areas in SRC; to discuss the current and planned R and D investigations relevant to the problems identified; and to suggest appropriate R and D activities in support of designs for the SRC demonstration plants. Four types of R and D activities are suggested: continuation of present and planned activities; coordination of activities and results, present and proposed; extension/redirection of activities not involving major equipment purchase or modifications; and new activities. Important examples of the first type of activity include continuation of fired heater, slurry rheology, and slurry mixing studies at Ft. Lewis. Among the second type of activity, coordination of data acquisition and interpretation is recommended in the areas of heat transfer, vapor/liquid equilibria, and physical properties. Principal examples of recommendations for extension/redirection include screening studies at laboratory scale on the use of carbonaceous precoat (e.g., anthracite) infiltration, and 15- to 30-day continuous tests of the Texaco gasifier at the Texaco Montebello facility (using SRC residues).},
doi = {10.2172/6875749},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Dec 01 00:00:00 EST 1980},
month = {Mon Dec 01 00:00:00 EST 1980}
}

Technical Report:

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  • The solvent refining process of Pittsburgh and Midway Coal Mining Company for coal cleaning results in a residue termed coal mineral. This residue contains essentially all the ash and inorganic sulfur of the original coal plus some organic sulfur and undissolved carbon. The carbon content varies from 20% to 60% depending on the severity of treatment in the refining process. Coarse coal mineral from Kentucky No. 9 coal containing about 30% carbon were gasified with steam at 1150/sup 0/C and 1340/sup 0/C in a 4-inch batch fluidized bed reactor. Product gases consisted chiefly of hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide.more » Usually during the first 60 minutes of gasification, carbon monoxide was produced in greater quantities than carbon dioxide. Thereafter, the carbon dioxide content increased significantly. Use of coarse mineral and a high ash content in them caused quicker appearance and increased quantities of carbon dioxide during gasification. Carbon conversions exceeding 90% were achieved at 1150/sup 0/C with gasification times exceeding 2 1/2 hours. The same conversion was achieved in 1 1/2 hours at 1340/sup 0/C.« less
  • This report covers the activity at the Ft. Lewis SRC Pilot Plant over about a three-year period from the time the various sections of the plant were accepted from the construction contractor in early 1974 until mid-April, 1977. Several different phases of operation were conducted during this period and each is discussed briefly below. The performance and problems encountered during this entire period of operation are reported in detail. Information is summarized in 158 tables and 99 figures.
  • This work reports the results of neutron activation analysis determination of the fate of trace elements in the SRC II process. Six coals were studied for their behavior in material balance runs carried out at the Fort Lewis Pilot Plant. The distribution of trace elements among products and input streams was determined by thermal neutron activation analysis using thermal neutron flux of 8 x 10/sup 12/ neutrons cm/sup -2/ sec/sup -1/ followed by Ge(Li) gamma ray spectroscopy. National Bureau of Standards Standard Reference Materials (SRM) were used to evaluate the analytical precision and accuracy of the methods used. For eachmore » material balance study the trace element input stream was taken as ground coal and the output streams were vacuum bottoms, SRC II product oil, and process water. In addition to these major components, oils, sludges and waters from liquid-liquid separators, effluent waters, biosludges, and by-product sulfur were also analyzed. Concerning the distribution of trace elements in the SRC II process, it was found that the vacuum bottoms was the major sink for all trace element studied, with the exception of Hg. Much lower trace element concentrations (except for Hg) were found in the SRC II product oil relative to the vacuum bottoms or the feed coal, irrespective of coal type. The results indicate excellent balances for the elements studied, except for Hg. Except for Hg, Se, and C1, the SRC II product and process waters contributed less than 1% of the elemental balances for light oil fractions and process waters indicates that Hg, and to a lesser degree As, Se, and Sb, exhibited volatile behavior in the SRC II process but that the degree of volatility is strongly dependent on conditions or coal type.« less
  • Instrumental neutron activation analysis was used to study the distribution and fate of up to 36 elements in the Solvent Refined Coal Process Pilot Plant located at Fort Lewis, Washington. The elements Ti, V, Mg, Ca, Al, Cl, Mn, As, Br, Na, K, Sm, La, Ga, Cu, Sb, Se, Hg, Ni, Co, Cr, Fe, Rb, Cs, Sc, Tb, Eu, Ce, Sr, Ba, Th, U, Hf, Ta, Zr and Zn were measured in feed coal, insoluble residues, process solvent, process and effluent waters, by-product sulfur, SRC-I solid product, liquid-liquid separator oils and SRC-II liquid products. The material balance was calculated formore » each element from the concentration data and yields of each process fraction for both the SRC-I and SRC-II processes. Except for Ti, Cl and Br in the SRC-I mode and Hg in the SRC-II mode, each element was substantially lower in the SRC products than in the original feed coal. Residues from the process contained more than 80% of the trace element content found in the coal, except for Hg. More than 98.5% of the total contents of K and Fe in coal were retained in the insoluble residues. Elements such as Hg, Se, As and Sb can form volatile compounds (such as Hg/sup 0/, H/sub 2/Se, AsH/sub 3/ and SbH/sub 3/) stable under the process conditions. The high enhancement factors of Se (957), As (202) and Sb (27.4) in the aqueous phase of the separator water compared to that of the oil are evidence for the formation of volatile species which are more soluble in water than in the oil phase.« less
  • Results are presented of a study of the distribution and fate of 34 trace elements in the Solvent Refined Coal Process at the pilot plant located at Fort Lewis, Washington. Neutron activation analysis was used to determine Ti, V, Ca, Mg, Al, Cl, Mn, As, Sb, Se, Hg, Br, Co, Ni, Cr, Fe, Na, Rb, Cs, K, Sc, Tb, Eu, Sm, Ce, La, Sr, Ba, Th, Hf, Ta, Ga, Zr, and Cu in feed coals, process solvent, Solvent Refined Coal (SRC), mineral residues, wet filter cake, by-product solvents, process and effluent waters and by-product sulfur. The sample points were chosenmore » such that the major process streams were adequately described and that the major input and output materials were included. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry was used to measure the toxic elements Pb, Cd, and Be in plant-derived solvents, effluent water and Hamer Marsh water. Specific methods were developed for analysis of a wide range of material compositions. The neutron activation analysis procedures were divided into short and long irradiation procedures for elements with short half lives (less than 3 hours) and intermediate to long half lives (8 hours to 5.2 years). A material balance (or budget) was calculated for each element from the concentration data and the yields of each process fraction for each equilibrium set in the SRC process. The SRC and insoluble residue account for more than 95% of the input of each element (except for Hg and Co in Equilibrium Set 1) with other process fractions contributing little to the trace element balance. Except for Cl, Br, and Ti, each element was substantially lower in the SRC compared to the original feed coal.« less