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Title: Cytogenetic and viability effects of petroleum aromatic and PCB hydrocarbons, temperature and salinity, on early development of the American oyster, Crassostrea virginica Gmelin

Abstract

Fertilized eggs were exposed to 0.1, 10 and 100 mg/l of benzene, naphthalene and Aroclor 1254 individually and in combination in seawater at temperatures and salinities of 20 and 25. Toxicity was measured as frequencies of: (1) meiotic and mitotic abnormalities in 3-hour embryos; (2) total development to the 48-hour straight-hinge larval stage; (3) mortality and abnormality at the 48-hour larval stage; (4) mean size of larvae at 48 hours; and (5) cytogenetic and cytological abnormalities in 48-hour larvae. Dose-dependent responses were observed. Overall, naphthalene and aroclor at 100 mg/l had few embryos that survived to the stage where they could be examined and scored for cytogenetic and cytological abnormality even by 3-hours post-fertilization. Abnormality of the few embryos available for examination was somewhat higher for aroclor but was significantly higher for naphthalene than for control embryos and those exposed to 0.1 mg/l. At the highest concentration of 100 mg/l, mortality was 100% by the larval stage for naphthalene and aroclor. Though total development and survival of embryos to the larval stage at the 10 mg/l dose were high, many of the larvae were dead or abnormal in the aroclor-exposed cultures. This mean incidence was significantly higher than for allmore » other groups. Larvae developing in these cultures with 10 mg/l were also significantly smaller and cytological condition of the larvae was significantly worse. Higher temperature appeared to increase the frequency of deleterious effects, particularly for naphthalene and aroclor. Results with salinity were more variable. Overall, results showed that petroleum aromatic hydrocarbons and PCBs can have toxic effects on the development and survival of early life stages of oysters, as well as sublethal effects on growth and cytological condition, depending on dose and interactions with other compound and with environmental variables.« less

Authors:
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Massachusetts Univ., Amherst, MA (United States)
OSTI Identifier:
6849225
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 6849225
Resource Type:
Miscellaneous
Resource Relation:
Other Information: Thesis (Ph.D.)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
63 RADIATION, THERMAL, AND OTHER ENVIRON. POLLUTANT EFFECTS ON LIVING ORGS. AND BIOL. MAT.; BENZENE; BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS; NAPHTHALENE; OYSTERS; ANIMAL GROWTH; ONTOGENESIS; POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS; PETROLEUM; SALINITY; TEMPERATURE DEPENDENCE; TOXICITY; ANIMALS; AQUATIC ORGANISMS; AROMATICS; CHLORINATED AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS; CONDENSED AROMATICS; ENERGY SOURCES; FOSSIL FUELS; FUELS; GROWTH; HALOGENATED AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS; HYDROCARBONS; INVERTEBRATES; MOLLUSCS; ORGANIC CHLORINE COMPOUNDS; ORGANIC COMPOUNDS; ORGANIC HALOGEN COMPOUNDS 560300* -- Chemicals Metabolism & Toxicology

Citation Formats

Stiles-Jewell, S. Cytogenetic and viability effects of petroleum aromatic and PCB hydrocarbons, temperature and salinity, on early development of the American oyster, Crassostrea virginica Gmelin. United States: N. p., 1994. Web.
Stiles-Jewell, S. Cytogenetic and viability effects of petroleum aromatic and PCB hydrocarbons, temperature and salinity, on early development of the American oyster, Crassostrea virginica Gmelin. United States.
Stiles-Jewell, S. Sat . "Cytogenetic and viability effects of petroleum aromatic and PCB hydrocarbons, temperature and salinity, on early development of the American oyster, Crassostrea virginica Gmelin". United States.
@article{osti_6849225,
title = {Cytogenetic and viability effects of petroleum aromatic and PCB hydrocarbons, temperature and salinity, on early development of the American oyster, Crassostrea virginica Gmelin},
author = {Stiles-Jewell, S.},
abstractNote = {Fertilized eggs were exposed to 0.1, 10 and 100 mg/l of benzene, naphthalene and Aroclor 1254 individually and in combination in seawater at temperatures and salinities of 20 and 25. Toxicity was measured as frequencies of: (1) meiotic and mitotic abnormalities in 3-hour embryos; (2) total development to the 48-hour straight-hinge larval stage; (3) mortality and abnormality at the 48-hour larval stage; (4) mean size of larvae at 48 hours; and (5) cytogenetic and cytological abnormalities in 48-hour larvae. Dose-dependent responses were observed. Overall, naphthalene and aroclor at 100 mg/l had few embryos that survived to the stage where they could be examined and scored for cytogenetic and cytological abnormality even by 3-hours post-fertilization. Abnormality of the few embryos available for examination was somewhat higher for aroclor but was significantly higher for naphthalene than for control embryos and those exposed to 0.1 mg/l. At the highest concentration of 100 mg/l, mortality was 100% by the larval stage for naphthalene and aroclor. Though total development and survival of embryos to the larval stage at the 10 mg/l dose were high, many of the larvae were dead or abnormal in the aroclor-exposed cultures. This mean incidence was significantly higher than for all other groups. Larvae developing in these cultures with 10 mg/l were also significantly smaller and cytological condition of the larvae was significantly worse. Higher temperature appeared to increase the frequency of deleterious effects, particularly for naphthalene and aroclor. Results with salinity were more variable. Overall, results showed that petroleum aromatic hydrocarbons and PCBs can have toxic effects on the development and survival of early life stages of oysters, as well as sublethal effects on growth and cytological condition, depending on dose and interactions with other compound and with environmental variables.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {1994},
month = {1}
}

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