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Title: Water contamination and esophageal cancer at Gassim Region, Saudi Arabia

Abstract

Between January 1980 and December 1982, 183 patients with histologically confirmed carcinoma of the esophagus who were referred to a tertiary referral hospital were studied. Thirty-two (17%) patients were referred from Gassim Region at the north central part of Saudi Arabia. In contrast, only 5% of total cancer patient referrals were from this area. A case-control study showed a significant regional difference within Saudi Arabia and the most referrals from Gassim area. A prospective case-control study showed persistently high numbers of referrals from that region during 1983-1987. When patients from Gassim Region were compared with those referred from other locations, no statistical differences were noted between the two groups except for the source of drinking water. Water analysis from Gassim area showed a high solid content with elevated levels of calcium, magnesium, and to a lesser extent, chromium iron, cadmium, and cobalt. Traces of petroleum oil were found in five of six water samples from Gassim during 1983, compared with 3 of 49 samples from other areas. Mutagenicity tests on water specimens form Gassim Region indicated the presence of possible carcinogens. It is being suggested that the high prevalence of esophageal cancer in this region may be related to contaminationmore » of water by impurities such as petroleum oils. Malnutrition, particularly vitamin A deficiency, as well as other factors may have promoted such malignancies.« less

Authors:
; ; ;  [1]
  1. (King Faisal Specialist Hospital, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia))
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
6843673
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 6843673
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Gastroenterology; (USA)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 98; Journal ID: ISSN 0016-5085
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
02 PETROLEUM; 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; 63 RADIATION, THERMAL, AND OTHER ENVIRON. POLLUTANT EFFECTS ON LIVING ORGS. AND BIOL. MAT.; CARCINOMAS; EPIDEMIOLOGY; DRINKING WATER; CONTAMINATION; ESOPHAGUS; PETROLEUM; TOXICITY; SAUDI ARABIA; WATER POLLUTION; CADMIUM; CALCIUM; CARCINOGENESIS; CHROMIUM; COBALT; IRON; MAGNESIUM; MAN; PATIENTS; SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS; ALKALINE EARTH METALS; ANIMALS; ASIA; BODY; DIGESTIVE SYSTEM; DISEASES; ELEMENTS; ENERGY SOURCES; FOSSIL FUELS; FUELS; HYDROGEN COMPOUNDS; INSTITUTIONAL FACTORS; MAMMALS; METALS; NEOPLASMS; ORGANS; OXYGEN COMPOUNDS; PATHOGENESIS; POLLUTION; PRIMATES; TRANSITION ELEMENTS; VERTEBRATES; WATER 020600* -- Petroleum-- Health & Safety; 540320 -- Environment, Aquatic-- Chemicals Monitoring & Transport-- (1990-); 560300 -- Chemicals Metabolism & Toxicology

Citation Formats

Amer, M.H., El-Yazigi, A., Hannan, M.A., and Mohamed, M.E. Water contamination and esophageal cancer at Gassim Region, Saudi Arabia. United States: N. p., 1990. Web.
Amer, M.H., El-Yazigi, A., Hannan, M.A., & Mohamed, M.E. Water contamination and esophageal cancer at Gassim Region, Saudi Arabia. United States.
Amer, M.H., El-Yazigi, A., Hannan, M.A., and Mohamed, M.E. Tue . "Water contamination and esophageal cancer at Gassim Region, Saudi Arabia". United States.
@article{osti_6843673,
title = {Water contamination and esophageal cancer at Gassim Region, Saudi Arabia},
author = {Amer, M.H. and El-Yazigi, A. and Hannan, M.A. and Mohamed, M.E.},
abstractNote = {Between January 1980 and December 1982, 183 patients with histologically confirmed carcinoma of the esophagus who were referred to a tertiary referral hospital were studied. Thirty-two (17%) patients were referred from Gassim Region at the north central part of Saudi Arabia. In contrast, only 5% of total cancer patient referrals were from this area. A case-control study showed a significant regional difference within Saudi Arabia and the most referrals from Gassim area. A prospective case-control study showed persistently high numbers of referrals from that region during 1983-1987. When patients from Gassim Region were compared with those referred from other locations, no statistical differences were noted between the two groups except for the source of drinking water. Water analysis from Gassim area showed a high solid content with elevated levels of calcium, magnesium, and to a lesser extent, chromium iron, cadmium, and cobalt. Traces of petroleum oil were found in five of six water samples from Gassim during 1983, compared with 3 of 49 samples from other areas. Mutagenicity tests on water specimens form Gassim Region indicated the presence of possible carcinogens. It is being suggested that the high prevalence of esophageal cancer in this region may be related to contamination of water by impurities such as petroleum oils. Malnutrition, particularly vitamin A deficiency, as well as other factors may have promoted such malignancies.},
doi = {},
journal = {Gastroenterology; (USA)},
issn = {0016-5085},
number = ,
volume = 98,
place = {United States},
year = {1990},
month = {5}
}