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Title: Status of coal liquefaction in the United States and related research and development at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

Abstract

We divide coal liquefaction processes into four categories: (1) indirect liquefaction, such as Fischer-Tropsch and methanol synthesis, in which coal is fist gasified to produce a synthesis gas which is then recombined to produce liquids; (2) direct liquefaction processes, typified by H-Coal, Exxon Donor Solvent (EDS), and SRC-I and II, in which a slurry of coal and solvent is subjected to high severity liquefaction conditions, either with or without added catalyst; (3) two-stage liquefaction, such as Conoco's CSF process, in which an initial dissolution at mild conditions is followed by a more severe catalytic hydrogenation-hydrocracking step; or the short contact time two-stage liquefaction processes being developed currently by groups which include Chevron, Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Department of Energy/Fossil Energy (DOE/FE); and (4) pyrolysis and hydropyrolysis processes, such as COED and Cities Service-Rockewell, in which coal is carbonized to produce liquids, gases, and char. Pilot plant experience with the various processes is reviewed (including equipment problems, corrosion and abrasion, refractory life, heat recovery, coke deposits, reactor kinetics, scale-up problems, health hazards, environmental impacts, upgrading products, economics, etc.). Commercialization possibilities are discussed somewhat pessimistically in the light of reduction of US Oil imports, weakening oil prices, conversion to coal, smallermore » automobiles, economics and finally, some uncertainty about SFC goals and policies. (LTN)« less

Authors:
; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)
OSTI Identifier:
6787181
Report Number(s):
CONF-821047-1
ON: DE83001887
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: 3. Tsukuba Symposium, Tsukuba, Japan, 5 Sep 1982
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT; 29 ENERGY PLANNING, POLICY AND ECONOMY; COAL LIQUEFACTION; ECONOMICS; RESEARCH PROGRAMS; REVIEWS; CHEMICAL REACTORS; COAL LIQUIDS; COMMERCIALIZATION; DEMONSTRATION PLANTS; EXXON LIQUEFACTION PROCESS; FISCHER-TROPSCH SYNTHESIS; FLOWSHEETS; H-COAL PROCESS; HEALTH HAZARDS; HYDROGENATION; INDUSTRIAL MEDICINE; LC-FINING; METHANOL; MOBIL M-GASOLINE PROCESS; PILOT PLANTS; PYROLYSIS; REFINING; SRC PROCESS; SRC-II PROCESS; SYNTHETIC FUELS CORPORATION; TSL PROCESS; USA; ALCOHOLS; CHEMICAL REACTIONS; DECOMPOSITION; DIAGRAMS; DOCUMENT TYPES; FLUIDS; FUNCTIONAL MODELS; HAZARDS; HYDROXY COMPOUNDS; LIQUEFACTION; LIQUIDS; MEDICINE; NORTH AMERICA; ORGANIC COMPOUNDS; PROCESSING; THERMOCHEMICAL PROCESSES; 010405* - Coal, Lignite, & Peat- Hydrogenation & Liquefaction; 290500 - Energy Planning & Policy- Research, Development, Demonstration, & Commercialization

Citation Formats

Salmon, R, Cochran, Jr, H D, and McNeese, L E. Status of coal liquefaction in the United States and related research and development at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. United States: N. p., 1982. Web.
Salmon, R, Cochran, Jr, H D, & McNeese, L E. Status of coal liquefaction in the United States and related research and development at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. United States.
Salmon, R, Cochran, Jr, H D, and McNeese, L E. Tue . "Status of coal liquefaction in the United States and related research and development at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory". United States.
@article{osti_6787181,
title = {Status of coal liquefaction in the United States and related research and development at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory},
author = {Salmon, R and Cochran, Jr, H D and McNeese, L E},
abstractNote = {We divide coal liquefaction processes into four categories: (1) indirect liquefaction, such as Fischer-Tropsch and methanol synthesis, in which coal is fist gasified to produce a synthesis gas which is then recombined to produce liquids; (2) direct liquefaction processes, typified by H-Coal, Exxon Donor Solvent (EDS), and SRC-I and II, in which a slurry of coal and solvent is subjected to high severity liquefaction conditions, either with or without added catalyst; (3) two-stage liquefaction, such as Conoco's CSF process, in which an initial dissolution at mild conditions is followed by a more severe catalytic hydrogenation-hydrocracking step; or the short contact time two-stage liquefaction processes being developed currently by groups which include Chevron, Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Department of Energy/Fossil Energy (DOE/FE); and (4) pyrolysis and hydropyrolysis processes, such as COED and Cities Service-Rockewell, in which coal is carbonized to produce liquids, gases, and char. Pilot plant experience with the various processes is reviewed (including equipment problems, corrosion and abrasion, refractory life, heat recovery, coke deposits, reactor kinetics, scale-up problems, health hazards, environmental impacts, upgrading products, economics, etc.). Commercialization possibilities are discussed somewhat pessimistically in the light of reduction of US Oil imports, weakening oil prices, conversion to coal, smaller automobiles, economics and finally, some uncertainty about SFC goals and policies. (LTN)},
doi = {},
url = {https://www.osti.gov/biblio/6787181}, journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {1982},
month = {10}
}

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