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Title: Two-dimensional position-sensitive detectors for small-angle neutron scattering

Abstract

In this paper, various detectors available for small angle neutron scattering (SANS) are discussed, along with some current developments being actively pursued. A section has been included to outline the various methodologies of position encoding/decoding with discussions on trends and limitations. Computer software/hardware vary greatly from institute and experiment and only a general discussion is given to this area. 85 refs., 33 figs.

Authors:
;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)
Sponsoring Org.:
DOE/ER
OSTI Identifier:
6778259
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 6778259; Legacy ID: DE90011285
Report Number(s):
ORNL/TM-11557
ON: DE90011285; TRN: 90-021736
DOE Contract Number:
AC05-84OR21400
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
46 INSTRUMENTATION RELATED TO NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY; NEUTRON DETECTORS; DESIGN; SMALL ANGLE SCATTERING; FISSION FOIL DETECTORS; GAS SCINTILLATION DETECTORS; IMAGES; PHOTOGRAPHIC FILM DETECTORS; PLASTIC SCINTILLATION DETECTORS; POSITION SENSITIVE DETECTORS; SCINTILLATOR-PHOTODIODE DETECTORS; SEMICONDUCTOR DETECTORS; SPECIFICATIONS; MEASURING INSTRUMENTS; RADIATION DETECTORS; SCATTERING; SCINTILLATION COUNTERS; SOLID SCINTILLATION DETECTORS 440102* -- Radiation Instrumentation-- Radiation Dosemeters

Citation Formats

McElhaney, S.A., and Vandermolen, R.I.. Two-dimensional position-sensitive detectors for small-angle neutron scattering. United States: N. p., 1990. Web. doi:10.2172/6778259.
McElhaney, S.A., & Vandermolen, R.I.. Two-dimensional position-sensitive detectors for small-angle neutron scattering. United States. doi:10.2172/6778259.
McElhaney, S.A., and Vandermolen, R.I.. Tue . "Two-dimensional position-sensitive detectors for small-angle neutron scattering". United States. doi:10.2172/6778259. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/6778259.
@article{osti_6778259,
title = {Two-dimensional position-sensitive detectors for small-angle neutron scattering},
author = {McElhaney, S.A. and Vandermolen, R.I.},
abstractNote = {In this paper, various detectors available for small angle neutron scattering (SANS) are discussed, along with some current developments being actively pursued. A section has been included to outline the various methodologies of position encoding/decoding with discussions on trends and limitations. Computer software/hardware vary greatly from institute and experiment and only a general discussion is given to this area. 85 refs., 33 figs.},
doi = {10.2172/6778259},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Tue May 01 00:00:00 EDT 1990},
month = {Tue May 01 00:00:00 EDT 1990}
}

Technical Report:

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  • A conventional Kratky small-angle collimation system has been modified to allow the use of a one-dimensional position-sensitive x-ray detector. The detector was designed specifically for use with a long-slit camera and has uniform sensitivity over the entire beam in the slit-length direction. Procedures for alignment of the collimation system are given, and a variety of tests of the performance of the system are presented. Among the latter are measurements of electronic noise and parasitic scattering as well as comparisons against samples which were also measured on other cameras. The good agreement of these comparisons demonstrates the success of the usemore » of a position-sensitive detector with the Kratky collimation system.« less
  • A position sensitive neutron detector was designed and fabricated with bundles of individual detector elements with diameters of 120 mm. These neutron scintillating fibers were coupled with optoelectronic arrays to produce a ''Fiber Detector.'' A fiber position sensitive detector was completed and tested with scattered and thermal neutrons. Deployment of improved 2D PSDs with high signal to noise ratios at lower costs per area was the overall objective of the project.
  • This study focuses on the radioactive materials characterization needs of DOE's decontamination and decommissioning effort. Gamma-ray imaging and spectroscopy together form a potentially powerful tool for the passive, non-destructive and non-intrusive identification and spatial mapping of contaminated structures. Germanium position-sensitive gamma-ray detectors offer the advantage of excellent energy resolution required for clear isotopic identification combined with potentially high spatial resolution. The authors propose a program of research to develop three-dimensional position-sensitive germanium detectors with the ultimate goal of improving image resolution without cameras. With the addition of depth-of-interaction sensing to conventional two-dimensional position-sensitive detectors, they will be able to greatlymore » reduce the image degradation effects caused by Compton scattering and parallax, thereby increasing the resolving power of the detectors. The technology developed will form the basis for the design and fabrication of future high-performance gamma-ray imaging cameras.« less
  • Critical to the DOE effort to deactivate and decommission the weapons complex facilities is the characterization of contaminated equipment and building structures. This characterization includes the isotopic identification of radioactive contaminants and the spatial mapping of these deposits. The penetrating nature of the gamma rays emitted by the radioactive contaminants provides a means to accomplish this task in a passive, non-destructive and non-intrusive manner. Through conventional gamma-ray spectroscopy, the radioactive isotopes in the contaminants can be identified by their characteristic gamma-ray signatures and the amount of each isotope by the intensity of the signature emission. With the addition of gamma-raymore » imaging, the spatial distributions of the isotopes can simultaneously be obtained. The ability to image radioactive contaminants can reduce waste as well as help ensure the adequate protection of workers and the environment. For example, if equipment and building materials have been subjected to radionuclide contamination, the entire structure must be treated as radioactive waste during demolition. However, only partial removal may be necessary if the contamination can be accurately located and identified. Hand-held survey instrumentation operated in the near vicinity of the contaminated objects is a common method to accomplish this task. This method necessitates long data acquisition times, direct close access, and considerable worker exposure, as well as leads to imprecise information. In contrast, imaging devices operated at a distance from the contaminated objects can accurately acquire the spatially dependent gamma-ray emission information in a single measurement. Consequently, the devices can more efficiently discriminate between contaminated and non-contaminated areas of heterogeneous objects while at the same time reducing worker exposure.« less