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Title: Light-duty diesel engine development status and engine needs

Abstract

This report reviews, assesses, and summarizes the research and development status of diesel engine technology applicable to light-duty vehicles. In addition, it identifies specific basic and applied research and development needs in light-duty diesel technology and related health areas where initial or increased participation by the US Government would be desirable. The material presented in this report updates information provided in the first diesel engine status report prepared by the Aerospace Corporation for the Department of Energy in September, 1978.

Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Aerospace Corp., El Segundo, CA (USA). Eastern Technical Div.
OSTI Identifier:
6769170
Report Number(s):
DOE/CS/52184-01
DOE Contract Number:
AC03-78CS52184
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
33 ADVANCED PROPULSION SYSTEMS; AUTOMOBILES; DIESEL ENGINES; DESIGN; ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS; PERFORMANCE; RESEARCH PROGRAMS; AIR POLLUTION CONTROL; COMBUSTION PRODUCTS; EXHAUST GASES; FUEL ADDITIVES; HEALTH HAZARDS; NOISE; OPERATION; POLLUTION REGULATIONS; ADDITIVES; ENGINES; FLUIDS; GASEOUS WASTES; GASES; HAZARDS; HEAT ENGINES; INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES; POLLUTION CONTROL; REGULATIONS; VEHICLES; WASTES 330102* -- Internal Combustion Engines-- Diesel

Citation Formats

Not Available. Light-duty diesel engine development status and engine needs. United States: N. p., 1980. Web. doi:10.2172/6769170.
Not Available. Light-duty diesel engine development status and engine needs. United States. doi:10.2172/6769170.
Not Available. 1980. "Light-duty diesel engine development status and engine needs". United States. doi:10.2172/6769170. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/6769170.
@article{osti_6769170,
title = {Light-duty diesel engine development status and engine needs},
author = {Not Available},
abstractNote = {This report reviews, assesses, and summarizes the research and development status of diesel engine technology applicable to light-duty vehicles. In addition, it identifies specific basic and applied research and development needs in light-duty diesel technology and related health areas where initial or increased participation by the US Government would be desirable. The material presented in this report updates information provided in the first diesel engine status report prepared by the Aerospace Corporation for the Department of Energy in September, 1978.},
doi = {10.2172/6769170},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 1980,
month = 8
}

Technical Report:

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  • The research and development status of the automotive diesel engine/vehicle sector is summarized, and specific basic and applied research and development needs in the diesel technology and health effects areas where active participation by the government would be desirable are identified. The report is divided into seven Sections, plus an Executive Summary. Sec. 1, entitled Introduction, provides a brief discussion of the study objectives, scope, and approach. Sec. 2, Diesel Engine Characteristics, examines the fuel economy and exhaust emissions trends of diesel engines, with particular emphasis on light duty engine/vehicle configurations, and currently unregulated species. Sec. 3, Diesel Engine Emissionmore » Control Technology, describes emission control techniques, devices, and systems which have been or still are being considered by many investigators in industry, governmental agencies, and research organizations. Sec. 4, Diesel Engine Programs Conducted by Government Agencies, highlights major programs conducted or planned by the EPA, DOT, U.S. Army, and DOE in the areas of diesel engine technology and health effects. Sec. 5, Diesel Engine Programs Conducted by Industry, and Sec. 6, Diesel Engine Programs Conducted by Other Organizations, discuss diesel exhaust emissions characterization, health effects, and technology programs performed by a selected group of organizations. Finally, Sec. 7 identifies specific program areas in which aggressive government participation would be desirable to develop the information required for comprehensive assessments of the near-term and far-term emissions and fuel economy potentials of divided chamber and open chamber diesel engines.« less
  • A light-duty automotive diesel engine was fumigated with methanol and ethanol in amounts up to 35% and 50% of the total fuel energy respectively. The main purpose of this study was to determine the effect of alcohol (methanol and ethanol) fumigation on engine performance at various operating conditions. Engine fuel efficiency, emissions, smoke, and the occurrence of severe knock were the parameters used to evaluate performance. Raw exhaust particulate and its soluble organic extract were screened for biological activity using the Ames Salmonella typhimurium assay. Results are given for a test matrix made up of twelve steady-state operating conditions. Formore » all conditions except the 1/4 rack (light load) condition, modest thermal efficiency gains were noted upon ethanol fumigation. Methanol showed the same increase at 3/4 and full rack (high load) conditions. However, engine roughness or the occurrence of severe knock limited the maximum amount of alcohol that could be fumigated. Brake specific NO/sub x/ concentrations were found to decrease for all ethanol conditions tested. Oxides of nitrogen emissions, on a volume basis, decreased for all alcohol conditions tested. Based on the limited particulate data analyzed, it appears as though ethanol fumigation, like methanol fumigation, while lowering the mass of particulate emitted, does enhance the biological activity of that particulate.« less
  • The orientation of this case study has been toward understanding consumer acceptance of the diesel, with an emphasis on trying to explain the pronounced rise and fall in demand for diesels between 1975 and 1984. Supporting data have been compiled to illustrate and chart changes in vehicle demand during the period of study, along with information on parallel trends, such as fuel price and various economic indicators as a backdrop for studying changes in consumer attitudes. This report also presents data and discussion which chart the peak in diesel demand. It starts with a discussion of market conditions immediately precedingmore » and accompanying the peak in demand through 1982. Trends in sales and other economic factors are described through various tables and charts. A discussion is then provided of the subsequent decline, with an explanation of the role of the various factors.« less
  • This document summarizes the results of analyses conducted in support of proposed nitrogen oxide (NOx) emission standards for 1987 and later-model year light duty trucks and the NOx and particulate standards for 1987 and later-model year heavy-duty engines. (49 FR 40258, October 15, 1984). The analyses include consideration of the costs and benefits of the proposed action as well as a comparison of the proposed action with alternative regulatory approaches. The report also includes the environmental impact analyses for NOx and diesel particulate standards.
  • A strategy for testing naval diesel engines for exhaust emissions was developed. A survey of existing international and national standard diesel engine duty cycles was conducted. All were found to be inadequate for testing and certification of engine exhaust emissions from naval diesel powered ships. Naval ship data covering 11,500 hours of engine operation of four U.S. Navy LSD 41 Class amphibious ships was analyzed to develop a 27 point class operating profile. A procedure combining ship hull form characteristics, ship propulsion plant parameters, and ship operating profile was detailed to derive an 11-Mode duty cycle representative for testing LSDmore » 41 Class propulsion diesel engines. A similar procedure was followed for ship service diesel engines. Comparisons with industry accepted duty cycles were conducted using exhaust emission contour plots for the Colt-Pielstick PC-4B diesel engines. Results showed the 11-Mode LSD 41 Class Duty Cycle best predicted ship propulsion engine emissions compared to the 27 point operating profile propeller curve. The procedure was applied to T-AO 187 Class with similar results. The application of civilian industry standards to measure naval diesel ship propulsion engine exhaust emissions was found to be inadequate. Engine exhaust flow chemistry post turbocharger was investigated using the SANDIA Lab computer tool CHEMKIN. Results showed oxidation and reduction reactions within exhaust gases are quenched in the exhaust stack. Since the exhaust stream in the stack is unreactive, emission sampling may be performed where most convenient. A proposed emission measurement scheme for LSD 41 Class ships was presented.« less