skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Cost estimates for membrane filtration and conventional treatment

Abstract

Costs of several ultrafiltration and nanofiltration processes are compared with the cost of conventional liquid-solid separation with and without GAC adsorption for small water treatment facilities. Data on raw-water quality, permeate flux, recovery, frequency of backflushing, and chemical dosage obtained from a pilot study were used with a previously developed model for membrane costs to calculate anticipated capital and operating costs for each instance. Data from the US Environmental Protection Agency were used to estimate conventional treatment costs. All of the membrane process calculations showed comparable or lower total costs per unit volume treated compared with conventional treatment for small facilities (< 200,000 m[sup 3]/d or about 5 mgd). Membrane processes may offer small facilities a less expensive alternative for the removal of particles and organic materials from drinking water.

Authors:
; ;  [1];  [2];  [3]
  1. (Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States))
  2. (Montgomery Watson Engineers, Herndon, VA (United States))
  3. (International Research Center for Water and the Environment, Le Pecq (France). Lyonnaise des Eaux)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
6724416
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Journal of the American Water Works Association; (United States); Journal Volume: 86:12
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; DRINKING WATER; DECONTAMINATION; MEMBRANES; TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT; ORGANIC COMPOUNDS; REMOVAL; PARTICULATES; ECONOMICS; WATER QUALITY; WATER TREATMENT PLANTS; CLEANING; ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY; HYDROGEN COMPOUNDS; OXYGEN COMPOUNDS; PARTICLES; WATER 540220* -- Environment, Terrestrial-- Chemicals Monitoring & Transport-- (1990-)

Citation Formats

Wiesner, M.R., Hackney, J., Sethi, S., Jacangelo, J.G., and Laine, J.M.. Cost estimates for membrane filtration and conventional treatment. United States: N. p., 1994. Web.
Wiesner, M.R., Hackney, J., Sethi, S., Jacangelo, J.G., & Laine, J.M.. Cost estimates for membrane filtration and conventional treatment. United States.
Wiesner, M.R., Hackney, J., Sethi, S., Jacangelo, J.G., and Laine, J.M.. 1994. "Cost estimates for membrane filtration and conventional treatment". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_6724416,
title = {Cost estimates for membrane filtration and conventional treatment},
author = {Wiesner, M.R. and Hackney, J. and Sethi, S. and Jacangelo, J.G. and Laine, J.M.},
abstractNote = {Costs of several ultrafiltration and nanofiltration processes are compared with the cost of conventional liquid-solid separation with and without GAC adsorption for small water treatment facilities. Data on raw-water quality, permeate flux, recovery, frequency of backflushing, and chemical dosage obtained from a pilot study were used with a previously developed model for membrane costs to calculate anticipated capital and operating costs for each instance. Data from the US Environmental Protection Agency were used to estimate conventional treatment costs. All of the membrane process calculations showed comparable or lower total costs per unit volume treated compared with conventional treatment for small facilities (< 200,000 m[sup 3]/d or about 5 mgd). Membrane processes may offer small facilities a less expensive alternative for the removal of particles and organic materials from drinking water.},
doi = {},
journal = {Journal of the American Water Works Association; (United States)},
number = ,
volume = 86:12,
place = {United States},
year = 1994,
month =
}
  • A new waste treatment system from MEMTEK Corporation incorporates membrane filtration, and makes possible the effective treatment of waste streams containing a number of toxic heavy metals. Using this membrane technology, MEMTEK is capable of treating the wastewater in battery manufacturing plants to meet even the strictest limits imposed by local regulatory agencies and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Lead and zinc in the treated effluent are typically below 0.1 ppm. The typical battery manufacturing processes introduce metals, primarily lead, into plant effluents, especially from formation, battery wash, and laundry operation. Due to the high usage of acid in themore » plant, the wastewater is also usually of a low pH, typically 2 or less. The dissolved and particulate contaminants in this effluent must be removed to very low levels before the water can be released to the sewer or the environment. The waste treatment process is described.« less
  • Many of the wastewater problems that raise havoc with conventional treatment can be managed using a combination of physical adsorption and biological assimilation. This type of system is based on the discovery that when large amounts of powdered activated carbon (up to 15 g/l) are added to the aeration basin of a conventional activated sludge plant, biological and physical treatment occur simultaneously: biodegradable pollutants are assimilated by the biological organisms, while non-biodegradables are adsorbed on the carbon. Further, the combination produces a synergistic resulttreatment performance exceeds that possible with either method used alone, or in series. High removals of BOD,more » COD and suspended solids; odor and color control; toxic removal; and nitrification are obtained. Where carbon dosage warrants reuse, the system is coupled with a carbon regeneration step to improve system cost effectiveness and eliminate secondary solids disposal.« less
  • The membrane-coupled activated sludge (MCAS) process has many advantages over the conventional activated sludge system, but the inherent membrane fouling problem still remains to be solved. However, it is not yet advanced enough to understand the reliable fouling mechanism. The strength of the MCAS process lies in the almost complete removal of suspended solids from the activated sludge broth. But it has made one overlook the effect of sludge morphology and physiology on membrane flux which is one of the key factors in deciding the economical feasibility of the MCAS system. The aim of this study was to investigate membranemore » filtration characteristics in the MCAS process, especially to correlate floc structures of the activated sludge with membrane fouling. A series of ultrafiltrations with both hydrophilic and hydrophobic membranes using the stirred batch cell system was performed to assess flux behavior according to the floc structures of the activated sludges (normal, pin-point, and bulking activated sludge). The order of fouling tendency was found to be normal sludge < pinpoint sludge, bulking sludge. Also, all the membranes behaved in the same way. The cake layer resistance (R{sub c}) made up most of the total resistance (R{sub t}), but the fouling resistance (R{sub f}) was negligible in any floc structure. The key factors controlling the R{sub c} were the shape and size of the activated sludge flocs and the porosity of the cake layer accumulated on the membrane surface. The hydrophobic membrane showed a greater fouling tendency than the hydrophilic membrane regardless of the microbial floc structures. The difference in fouling tendency between the two membranes was attributed to the hydrophobic interactions between the membrane and floc surfaces.« less
  • Addressing an Americans for Energy Independence conference, Alex Radin, executive director of the American Public Power Association (APPA), has challenged electric-industry demand and supply projections, coming up with figures that measurably contravene estimates put forward by such groups as the Department of Energy, Edison Electric Institute, and North American Electric Reliability Council. Radin suggests that smaller-sized power plants are best for meeting future marginal electricity demand. His remarks are seen to reflect an alignment of the public power sector with such groups as the Environmental Defense Fund and the Energy Productivity Center at the Mellon Institute regarding electric supply andmore » demand projections.« less