skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Development and demonstration of a system for vitrifying high-level radioactive waste in high-silica glass

Abstract

Preliminary testing of a high silica glass process suggested that requirements could be satisfied by fixing the waste in a high silica core surrounded by a waste-free high silica clad. This dissertation reports the development of the technology to execute the process remotely and the demonstration of the remote process, using simulated high level waste separated into sludge and clarified liquid phases comparable to the waste at the Savannah River Plant. An ion exchange medium consisting of porous glass matrix glass powder was used in batch mode to achieve liquid phase decontamination factors of approximately 39 for Sr-90, 7 for Co-60 and 5 for Cs-137. Following ion exchange, the decontaminated liquid was decanted; the sludge was added to the spent medium; the stirred mixture was vacuum dried at elevated temperature, and the resultant powder was transferred into a non-radioactive high silica glass tube. Programmed heating and pressure reduction calcined non-oxide components, collapsed the particles of porous glass to physically trap material in the pores, agglomerated the collapsed particles to trap inter-granular sludge particles, and collapsed the clad tube about the core. The technology developed for remote ion exchange and vitrification is shown to be satisfactory; some improvements are suggested. Amore » short-term test demonstrated the leach rate from the waste form to be less than 10/sup -10/ y/sup -1/ for Cs-137 and less than 9 x 10/sup -9/ y/sup -1/ for Co-60; no measurement was made for Sr/Y-90. The high silica core and clad technology provides, by far, the most leach-resistant packaging which has been demonstrated for high level waste. In particular, the observed leach rates are very far below the US NRC criterion for a fractional release rate less than 10/sup -5/ y/sup -1/.« less

Authors:
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Catholic Univ. of America, Washington, DC
OSTI Identifier:
6718082
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 6718082
Resource Type:
Thesis/Dissertation
Resource Relation:
Other Information: Thesis (Ph. D.)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
12 MANAGEMENT OF RADIOACTIVE AND NON-RADIOACTIVE WASTES FROM NUCLEAR FACILITIES; HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES; VITRIFICATION; CESIUM 137; COBALT 60; GLASS; HEAT TREATMENTS; ION EXCHANGE; LEACHING; LIQUID WASTES; PERFORMANCE TESTING; RADIOACTIVE WASTE PROCESSING; REMOTE HANDLING; SAVANNAH RIVER PLANT; SILICA; SIMULATION; SLUDGES; STRONTIUM 90; WASTE FORMS; ALKALI METAL ISOTOPES; ALKALINE EARTH ISOTOPES; BETA DECAY RADIOISOTOPES; BETA-MINUS DECAY RADIOISOTOPES; CESIUM ISOTOPES; CHALCOGENIDES; COBALT ISOTOPES; DISSOLUTION; EVEN-EVEN NUCLEI; INTERMEDIATE MASS NUCLEI; INTERNAL CONVERSION RADIOISOTOPES; ISOMERIC TRANSITION ISOTOPES; ISOTOPES; MANAGEMENT; MATERIALS; MINERALS; MINUTES LIVING RADIOISOTOPES; NATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS; NUCLEI; ODD-EVEN NUCLEI; ODD-ODD NUCLEI; OXIDE MINERALS; OXIDES; OXYGEN COMPOUNDS; PROCESSING; RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS; RADIOACTIVE WASTES; RADIOISOTOPES; SEPARATION PROCESSES; SILICON COMPOUNDS; SILICON OXIDES; STRONTIUM ISOTOPES; TESTING; US AEC; US DOE; US ERDA; US ORGANIZATIONS; WASTE MANAGEMENT; WASTE PROCESSING; WASTES; YEARS LIVING RADIOISOTOPES 052001* -- Nuclear Fuels-- Waste Processing

Citation Formats

Keene, W.E. Development and demonstration of a system for vitrifying high-level radioactive waste in high-silica glass. United States: N. p., 1987. Web.
Keene, W.E. Development and demonstration of a system for vitrifying high-level radioactive waste in high-silica glass. United States.
Keene, W.E. Thu . "Development and demonstration of a system for vitrifying high-level radioactive waste in high-silica glass". United States.
@article{osti_6718082,
title = {Development and demonstration of a system for vitrifying high-level radioactive waste in high-silica glass},
author = {Keene, W.E.},
abstractNote = {Preliminary testing of a high silica glass process suggested that requirements could be satisfied by fixing the waste in a high silica core surrounded by a waste-free high silica clad. This dissertation reports the development of the technology to execute the process remotely and the demonstration of the remote process, using simulated high level waste separated into sludge and clarified liquid phases comparable to the waste at the Savannah River Plant. An ion exchange medium consisting of porous glass matrix glass powder was used in batch mode to achieve liquid phase decontamination factors of approximately 39 for Sr-90, 7 for Co-60 and 5 for Cs-137. Following ion exchange, the decontaminated liquid was decanted; the sludge was added to the spent medium; the stirred mixture was vacuum dried at elevated temperature, and the resultant powder was transferred into a non-radioactive high silica glass tube. Programmed heating and pressure reduction calcined non-oxide components, collapsed the particles of porous glass to physically trap material in the pores, agglomerated the collapsed particles to trap inter-granular sludge particles, and collapsed the clad tube about the core. The technology developed for remote ion exchange and vitrification is shown to be satisfactory; some improvements are suggested. A short-term test demonstrated the leach rate from the waste form to be less than 10/sup -10/ y/sup -1/ for Cs-137 and less than 9 x 10/sup -9/ y/sup -1/ for Co-60; no measurement was made for Sr/Y-90. The high silica core and clad technology provides, by far, the most leach-resistant packaging which has been demonstrated for high level waste. In particular, the observed leach rates are very far below the US NRC criterion for a fractional release rate less than 10/sup -5/ y/sup -1/.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {1987},
month = {1}
}

Thesis/Dissertation:
Other availability
Please see Document Availability for additional information on obtaining the full-text document. Library patrons may search WorldCat to identify libraries that hold this thesis or dissertation.

Save / Share: