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Title: Simultaneous measurement of free-living energy expenditure by the doubly labeled water method and heart-rate monitoring

Abstract

Total energy expenditure (TEE) was measured simultaneously in 14 free-living adults over 15 d by the doubly labeled water (DLW) method and for 2-4 separate days by heart-rate (HR) monitoring. Individual curves for HR vs oxygen consumption (VO2) were obtained and an HR (FLEX HR: 97 +/- 8 beats/min, range 84-113 beats/min) that discriminated between rest and activity was identified. Calibration curves were used to assign an energy value to daytime HR above FLEX HR. Below FLEX HR energy expenditure was taken as resting metabolism. Sleeping energy expenditure was assumed to be equal to basal metabolic rate. Average HR TEE (12.99 +/- 3.83 MJ/d) and average DLW TEE (12.89 +/- 3.80 MJ/d) were similar. HR TEE discrepancies ranged from -22.2% to +52.1%, with nine values lying within +/- 10% of DLW TEE estimates. The FLEX HR method provides a close estimation of the TEE of population groups. However, an increased number of sampling days may improve the precision of individual estimates of TEE.

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;  [1]
  1. (Univ. of Ulster at Jordanstown, County Antrim, Northern Ireland (England))
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
6643038
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 6643038
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition; (USA); Journal Volume: 52:1
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
59 BASIC BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES; MAN; METABOLISM; ADULTS; DEUTERIUM; DOUBLE LABELLING; EXERCISE; HEART; TRACER TECHNIQUES; WATER; AGE GROUPS; ANIMALS; BODY; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; HYDROGEN COMPOUNDS; HYDROGEN ISOTOPES; ISOTOPE APPLICATIONS; ISOTOPES; LABELLING; LIGHT NUCLEI; MAMMALS; NUCLEI; ODD-ODD NUCLEI; ORGANS; OXYGEN COMPOUNDS; PRIMATES; STABLE ISOTOPES; VERTEBRATES 550501* -- Metabolism-- Tracer Techniques

Citation Formats

Livingstone, M.B., Prentice, A.M., Coward, W.A., Ceesay, S.M., Strain, J.J., McKenna, P.G., Nevin, G.B., Barker, M.E., and Hickey, R.J. Simultaneous measurement of free-living energy expenditure by the doubly labeled water method and heart-rate monitoring. United States: N. p., 1990. Web.
Livingstone, M.B., Prentice, A.M., Coward, W.A., Ceesay, S.M., Strain, J.J., McKenna, P.G., Nevin, G.B., Barker, M.E., & Hickey, R.J. Simultaneous measurement of free-living energy expenditure by the doubly labeled water method and heart-rate monitoring. United States.
Livingstone, M.B., Prentice, A.M., Coward, W.A., Ceesay, S.M., Strain, J.J., McKenna, P.G., Nevin, G.B., Barker, M.E., and Hickey, R.J. Sun . "Simultaneous measurement of free-living energy expenditure by the doubly labeled water method and heart-rate monitoring". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_6643038,
title = {Simultaneous measurement of free-living energy expenditure by the doubly labeled water method and heart-rate monitoring},
author = {Livingstone, M.B. and Prentice, A.M. and Coward, W.A. and Ceesay, S.M. and Strain, J.J. and McKenna, P.G. and Nevin, G.B. and Barker, M.E. and Hickey, R.J.},
abstractNote = {Total energy expenditure (TEE) was measured simultaneously in 14 free-living adults over 15 d by the doubly labeled water (DLW) method and for 2-4 separate days by heart-rate (HR) monitoring. Individual curves for HR vs oxygen consumption (VO2) were obtained and an HR (FLEX HR: 97 +/- 8 beats/min, range 84-113 beats/min) that discriminated between rest and activity was identified. Calibration curves were used to assign an energy value to daytime HR above FLEX HR. Below FLEX HR energy expenditure was taken as resting metabolism. Sleeping energy expenditure was assumed to be equal to basal metabolic rate. Average HR TEE (12.99 +/- 3.83 MJ/d) and average DLW TEE (12.89 +/- 3.80 MJ/d) were similar. HR TEE discrepancies ranged from -22.2% to +52.1%, with nine values lying within +/- 10% of DLW TEE estimates. The FLEX HR method provides a close estimation of the TEE of population groups. However, an increased number of sampling days may improve the precision of individual estimates of TEE.},
doi = {},
journal = {American Journal of Clinical Nutrition; (USA)},
number = ,
volume = 52:1,
place = {United States},
year = {Sun Jul 01 00:00:00 EDT 1990},
month = {Sun Jul 01 00:00:00 EDT 1990}
}
  • The doubly labeled water method is a form of indirect calorimetry that has been developed only recently to the stage of application to human studies. The method measures integral CO2 production for up to 3 wk from the difference in elimination rates of deuterium and YO from labeled body water. Validations against near-continuous respiratory gas exchange have demonstrated that the method is accurate and has a precision of 2-8% depending on the isotope dose and the length of the elimination period. Although the method has been validated, there is still some debate on refinements of the kinetic model that maymore » lead to improved accuracy and precision. Because the method only requires periodic sampling of body fluids, it is non-restrictive and ideally suited to use in free-living subjects. Recent applications of the method have included obesity research, determination of energy requirements in both developing and developed countries and studies of human growth. 68 references.« less
  • The effect of energy supplementation was evaluated in six underweight adults under free-living conditions. Customary energy intake (EI) over 4 wk and estimated body composition were defined. Then for 12 wk subjects were fed their customary EI under controlled conditions to assure stable energy reserve. Finally, intake was increased by a mean of 720 kcal/d for 8 wk adjusted to increase body fat from 9 to 18%. Body weight (means +/- SD) increased from 55.2 +/- 3.4 to 57.0 +/- 4.2 kg. Body fat gain was highly variable ranging from 0.6 to 3.8 kg. Energy expenditure (EE) by the factorialmore » and doubly labeled water methods did not change. Fat storage accounted for 66% of the supplemental energy; 237 kcal/d remained unaccounted for. EE by the factorial method, which uses indirect calorimetry or isotopic measurements, were highly correlated (r = 0.8; p less than 0.01). Under the conditions of this study EI does not affect EE. The labeled water method permits the evaluation of energy expenditure in free-living conditions.« less
  • Average daily energy expenditure determined by the doubly labeled water technique (dlwEE) was compared in six subjects (aged 20-30 y) over 2 wk under usual living conditions; average food energy intake and energy expenditure estimated from individual diary records of physical activity. In addition, energy expenditure was estimated from 24-h heart rate recordings carried out on two randomly chosen days of the 2-wk period. The group means of the dlwEE were 1.94 +/- 0.24 (means +/- SD) times larger than resting metabolic rate (= 1.94 met) and nearly identical to the average daily energy intake (1.93 +/- 0.23 met). Energymore » expenditure estimated from the diaries of activity and from the 24-h heart rate recording varied between 1.67 and 2.24 met depending on the calculation procedure. The dlwEE (1.94 +/- 0.24 met) is much higher than that recently determined for sedentary people (1.25 met) and thus explains that young students may achieve body weight balance with a relatively high daily food energy intake.« less
  • The doubly labeled water method was compared with indirect calorimetry and a nutrient-balance study for simultaneous determination of rates of CO/sub 2/ production, energy expenditure, and water intake over 5 days in four preterm infants. Additionally, metabolizable energy (ME) intake estimated using the isotope procedure (as energy expenditure plus an estimate for energy deposition based on weight gain), was compared to ME intake measured in the balance study. Compared to values obtained by traditional methods, calculated CO/sub 2/ production, energy expenditure, and water intake differed by -1.4 +/- 4.8% (SD), +0.3 +/- 2.6%, and +5.7 +/- 1.4%, respectively; the differencemore » in water intake was significant (p less than 0.05). Calculated ME intakes were 5.3 +/- 19.3% less than measured intakes, but the difference was not significant. These findings indicate that the doubly labeled water method can provide accurate information on rates of CO/sub 2/ production, energy expenditure, and water intake in preterm infants, but individual estimates of ME intake may be subject to substantial error.« less
  • Energy expenditure over a 2-wk period was determined by the doubly labeled water (2H2(18)O) method in nine adults. When daily samples were analyzed, energy expenditure was 2859 +/- 453 kcal/d (means +/- SD); when only the first and last time points were considered, the mean calculated energy expenditure was not significantly different (2947 +/- 430 kcal/d). An analysis of theoretical cases in which isotope flux is not constant indicates that the multipoint method can cause errors in the calculation of average isotope fluxes, but these are generally small. Simulations of the effect of analytical error indicate that increasing the numbermore » of replicates on two points reduces the impact of technical errors more effectively than does performing single analyses on multiple samples. It appears that generally there is no advantage to collecting frequent samples when the 2H2(18)O method is used to estimate energy expenditure in adult humans.« less